TYPES OF COMPOUNDS Endocentric: AB = B A= modifier B= head Take a look at the following example toothpaste Is it a type of tooth? or; Is it a type of paste? Definition of toothpaste from www. macmillandictionary. com soft thick subtance (paste) that you put on a toothbrush to clean your teeth Tooth is the modifier (A) of the head (B) paste. AB=B toothpaste = a type of paste for brushing teeth In most cases the head is the rightmost component of the compound. English N-N Compounds * catfood * storybook * face cream * wood pulp * footbal player food, book, cream, pulp and player are the ‘HEADs’ English Endocentric Compounds blackboard * red rose * hair brush * armchair * wild animal * spoon-feed Conclusion: 1. The head IDENTIFIES the entire class to which the meaning of the entire word belongs. 2. The word class of endocentric compounds is determined by their rightmost components (the heads) blackboard; black(Adj. ) board(N) blackboard(N) spoon-feed; spoon(N) feed(V) spoon-feed(V) 3. An endocentric compound has the same syntactic function as its head in a sentence. My mom is spoon-feeding my two-year-old brother. My mom is feeding my two-year-old brother. Indonesian Endocentric Compounds * botol kecap (soy sauce bottle) lemari pakaian (wardobe, clothes closet) * buku bacaan (reader) * ruang kelas (class room) * sepeda motor (motorcycle) * ruang guru (teacher’s room) * mawar putih (white rose) * binatang melata (reptile) * anak sekolah (schoolchild) * rumah makan (restaurant) Botol, lemari, buku, ruang and sepeda are the ‘HEADs’ Exocentric: AB? B Take a look at this example: crybaby …………………………………………… cry – baby Which is the head? Is crybaby a type of baby? Definition of crybaby from www. macmillandictionary. com someone who cries too much, especially a child AB? B crybaby ? a type of baby who cries a lot
Therefore, ‘crybaby’ is said to be exocentric. English Exocentric Compounds * bigmouth (someone who talks a lot and is unable to keep anything secret) * skinhead (a young man whose hair is cut off completely) * kill-joy (a person who spoils the jow of other others) * bird-brain (a stupid person) * walkman (cassette player and radio used with headphones) Conclusion: 1. The head DOES NOT IDENTIFY the entire class to which the meaning of the entire word belongs. Thus, bigmouth is not a type of mouth but is a type of person. 2. An exocentric compound has unexpressed semantic head. The word brain in birdbrain refers to a person.
The word man in walkman refers to a things. 3. The word class of exocentric compounds is determined by their meaning. walkman; walk(V) man(N) walkman(N) walkman: a cassette player and radio used with headphones (N) 4. The components of an exocentric compound have different distribution in a sentence. I bought a new walkman. I bought a new man. Indonesian Exocentic Compounds * meja hijau (literally means green table) meja hijau is not a type of table, but it is a place where trials take place (court) * kaki seribu (literally means a thausand feet) It is not a type of feet, but it is a type of animal (millipede). illipede is derived from Latin millepeda mille means thausand + ped-, pes foot Pluralization in English Compounds Take a look at the following comparison Endocentric Singular| Plural| oak leaf| oak leaves| wisdom tooth| wisdom teeth| club foot| club teeth| policeman| policemen| An endocentric compound has the same syntactic function as its head. Oak leaf is a type of leaf. The plural form of leaf is leaves. Exocentric Singular| Plural| Maple Leaf| Maple Leafs| sabre tooth| sabre tooths| bigfoot| bigfoots| walkman| walkmans| The components of an exocentric compound have different distribution.
Walkman is not a type of man, but it creates a new meaning (a thing). Thus, we do not follow the rule of irregular pluralization of the word man (men). Compounds in Other Languages Korean isul-pidew rain‘drizzle’ the head is the rightmost component German Notizbuchnote book‘notebook’ the head is the rightmost component Tagalog tanod bayanguard town‘policeman’ the head is the leftmost component Indonesian buku sejarahbook history‘history book’ the head is the leftmost component Incorporation: The combination of a word (usually a noun) with a verb to form a compound verb.