E-commerce can be defined as use computers with internet to aid the trade of goods and services. The emergence of e-commerce is seen as a new wave of IT. E-commerce provide a trading platform without the distance between products and consumers. Online trading activities continually increase in these years and will dramatically grow in the future (Nardal and Sahin, 2011). Bette and Jackie (2001) notes people will change their common consumer behaviour to the Web. The gap between e-commerce and commerce is going to disappear swiftly.

As a result of this huge market, a lot of companies ceaselessly found the way to succeed in this competition (Stead and Gilbert,2001). On the other hand Internet created a new environment for unethical behaviour. Many ethical issues came out, such as spamming and cybersquatters. Cause by people lack of fear of punishment in e-commerce, inappropriate behaviour engaged (Nardal and Sahin, 2011). Generally unethical issue in e-commerce is using Internet to cheat consumers, trading illegal goods and etc.

If the unethical problems are disregarded or not resolved, it is possible to make deformity of development of e-commerce (Stead and Gilbert, 2001). This paper gives a review by comparing two different articles, these two articles both are related ethical issues in the design of e-commerce applications. The first article written by Stead and Gilbert(2001) is Ethical Issues in Electronic Commerce and the second article written by Nardal and Sahin (2011) is Ethical Issues in E-commerceon the Basis of Online Retailing. Research questions

Their two articles relate to the ethical issues in e-commerce, but they have different focal points. Nardal and Sahin (2011) focused on ethical issues in e-commerce on online retailing in Turkey on online retailing. The article written by Stead and Gilbert (2001) is to recognize some examples of ethical issues that have came out as a result . The article written by Nardal and Sahin (2011) is limited in ethical issues in Turkey, a small range of research question is favourable for them to do the research in the round. Nardal and Sahin (2011) focused on the influence of ethical issues to online retailing as well.

Stead and Gilbert (2001) focused on the different point, they payed more attention to privacy. They used many real examples to get reactions from the public and market of ethical issues to prove ethical issues will get swiftly resolved. Contrast two articles, it is easy to find they both have the points they focused on, rather than studied ethical issues widely. Due to this reason, they can do their research more meticulously and audiences can analysis the research questions easily. Cause by the small range of their research limited their works, there is no board representation of their research.

Key concepts Based on their research questions, they chose their own key concepts. Nardal and Sahin (2011) focused on the influence of ethical issues to online retailing in Turkey. This whole article was written around ethical issues affected online retailing in Turkey did not spread out the topic. Different from Naedal and Sahin (2011), Stead and Gilbert (2001) payed attention on the appearance of ethical issues with emerging electronic commerce from the public and market. Nardal and Sahin (2011) wanted to get some useful information from the research on ethical issues on online retailing in Turkey.

They correctly selected concepts and focused on the influence. But in Stead and Gilbert’s (2001) article, they placed extra emphasis on the appearance of privacy problems, described other ethical issues briefly. Thereby they wanted to use this concept to get a reaction from the public and market to prove ethical issues will get swiftly resolved. Two articles are both about ethical issues in electronic commerce, what they should do is choosing correct key concepts, the key concepts should be around ethical issues no matter what specific ethical issues, it can help the articles are more persuasive.

Throughout two articles, the clear key concepts can be found in two articles. Narddal and Sahin (2001), Stead and Gilbert (2001), they obtained the result they wanted from reaching around the key concepts. They have clear thinking . Compare with Nardal and Sahin (2011), Stead and Gilbert (2001) chose better key concepts. For key concepts, the purpose and the result of two articles should be considered, Nardal and Sahin (2011) wanted to give some useful information to online retailers, the whole article focused on the influence of ethical issues to online retailing from Turkey.

Their concepts are clear but not specific, to their purpose of their article their key concepts have not enough persuasive. Stead and Gilbert (2001), they did choose better key concepts, focused on a specific issues the privacy issues in electronic commerce, it made the result that ethical issues could be resolved swiftly from analysis of reaction of the public and market, especially Stead and Gilbert (2001) chose the reaction from the public and market, it is exhaustive. Methods Nardal and Sahin (2011) wanted to analysis the influence of ethical issues to online retailing in Turkey, so it is important to collect and analysis the data.

Nardal and Sahin (2011) chose three cities in Turkey(Izmir, Manisa, Mersin) to conduct his survey of 400 online shoppers to measure consumers` perceptions on ethical issues in e-commerce by using a questionnaire. Different from Nardal and Sahin (2011), in order to prove ethical issues emerged as a result of e-commerce and these issues could be resolved Stead and Gilbert (2001) listed some real examples. Most of examples focused on privacy on ethical issues. In other ethical issues, they still used examples to appear their research, just described them in little space.

Compare with questionnaire and examples ,the results of questionnaire are easy to statistics and analysis especially Nardal and Sahin’s (2011) research question is online topic. Stead and Gilbert (2001) listed examples, listing examples increased the authenticity of the article, thus their article are more creditable. Nardal and Sahin (2011) selected surveys from different cities is conducive to obtain comprehensive data, solely conduct questionnaire among the same cities should lose the representation of their topic ethical issues on online retailing in Turkey.

Stead and Gilbert (2001) did classification of privacy issues such as web sites unlabelled as advertising, cybersquatters and etc.. List examples and do the classification refine their research to make the works specific and typical. By using their own methods, they chose the suitable way to use it. But in Nardal and Sahin’s (2011)article, a questionnaire developed by Roman (2007) was used by Nardal and Sahin (2011) in their study. Nardal and Sahin (2011) have established four hypotheses to test utilizing the survey results.

Using the questionnaire developed by other people is not prudent and lose the accuracy of data. Every survey has different background, a questionnaire should be designed to understand the specific circumstances of the survey. Also there are some problems with Stead and Gilbert’s (2001) article. They used two tables to describe the background of the growth of electronic commerce. They occupied two to three pages, it is not necessary to depict background, it seems too meticulous cause their article bloated. The description of background should brief.

After viewing these two articles, they chose different research methods as a result of their different focus. Nardal and Sahin (2011) did a questionnaire, Stead and Gilbert (2001) listed examples, generally they both chose suitable methods for their articles. Two articles all gave enough evidences to prove their research, but Nardal and Sahin (2011) had some small problem in questionnaire design and Stead and Gilbert spent too much attention on the background. Knowledge claims Nardal and Sahin (2011) got the result from sending questionnaires to people.

They found ethical problems limit the growth of online retailing and that four factors(security, privacy, non deception and reliability) are what online consumers want in e-commerce. It is helpful for online retailers do online retailing activities. Stead and Gilbert (2001) concluded that some ethical issues should get swiftly resolved caused by the actual or perceived exposure to and reaction of the public and market. Sum up, they all got the findings from their research, and the findings of their articles are creditable cause by using the suitable produce in their own article.

To check the quality of two researches, the processes and findings should be put together. Two articles are both about ethical issues in electronic commerce. Nardal and Sahin (2011) chose the influence of ethical issues to online retailing by using questionnaires, through analysis of impact to find some useful information for online retailers, it is more persuasive, the online retailers want to change the correct situation they need to know what consumers want to get, so the impact of them is important for online etailers. Compare with Nardal and Sahin (2011), Stead and Gilbert(2001) focus on the reaction from the public and market of appearance of ethical issues in electronic commerce to conclude that some ethical issues could be resolved. But to solve the problems does not just depend on the reaction of the public and market, there are many objective and subjective factors. So compare two articles, Nardal and Sahin’s(2011) article is more persuasive than Stead and Gilbert’s (2001). Value claims

Nardal and Sahin (2011) gave some useful suggestions for online retailers, and Stead and Gilbert (2001) concluded that some ethical issues could be resolved by analysis of the reactions from the public and the market. Compare the findings, the findings of Nardal and Sahin (2011) are more valuable than Stead and Gilbert’s (2001), because Nardal and Sahin’s (2011) findings provided the direction of changing to people in ethical issues in e-commerce, it can help more researchers .

But Stead and Gilbert’s (2001) findings seem just a result, they can give the belief that ethical issues could be resolved, there are no more valuable suggestions. Conclusion Throughout two articles,they chose different specific questions to study,but they all did the research around ethical issues in electronic commerce. They both got the findings through their research. Nardal and Sahin (2011) chose a small range of his topic, ethical issues in electronic commerce on the basis of online retailing, the same as Stead and Gilbert(2001).

The small range of the research helped them had clear concepts,although Stead and Gilbert(2001) chose better key concepts. On the survey methods,Nardal and Sahin (2011) chose questionnaire, Stead and Gilbert(2001) listed the examples, generally they both chose the suitable methods and used them legitimately. But in questionnaire design, Nardal and Sahin (2011) needed to improve that they should design the questionnaire by themselves, and Stead and Gilbert(2001) used too many spaces to introduce background. The findings of Nardal and Sahin’s (2011) are much persuasive and valuable than Stead and Gilbert’s(2001).

Since Nardal and Sahin (2011) chose more appropriate concepts to study to get the findings that they wanted, their findings gave online retailers some valuable suggestions. Stead and Gilbert (2001) did not choose very suitable concepts to get their findings, also their findings are not valuable as Naedal and Sahin’s (2011).

Reference

Nardal, S. and Sahin, A. , (2011), ‘Ethical Issues in E-commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing’,Journal of Social Sciences, 7(2):190-198. Stead, B. A. and Gilbert, J. , (2001), ‘Ethical Issues in Electronic Commerce’, Journal of Business Ethics, 7:75-85.