In 1956, Benjamin Bloom led a consortium of researchers to identify domains associated with educational learning activities. The domains were labeled cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Nursing education is driven by patient outcomes. In the modern era, healthcare providers are not only reimbursed for their care through a series of audits which gather information to justify the patient stay, but are also graded by surveying agencies on their quality of care. This focus has crossed over into the training level of nurses.
When I think of Bloom’s application in nursing education, I recall the care plans we developed as student nurses. I do not recall specifically learning about Bloom’s Taxonomy, however this current research into the subject has caused much reflection, which leads me to the conclusion we were taught this concept. Critical thinking is at the heart of self-care just as much as it is at the heart of nursing. Larkin proposed, “some researchers argue critical thinking cannot be taught”, (Larkin and Burtin, 2008). Cognitive Domain The knowledge-based domain of the taxonomy is the cognitive domain.
The learner is expected to gain knowledge from various types of stimuli including but not limited to oral, written or graphic information. Utilizing instructions, they should be able to carry out a task. Determining how the parts of a system relate is the beginning of comprehension. Understanding the system components allows the learner to make judgments and reach measureable objectives. Affective Domain Through receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, internalizing of the information, the learner actively participates in the learning process.
They are no longer just receiving information but are now actively involved. Through feedback, the facilitator is able to gauge the learner’s understanding of the process to this point. Adjustments in the teaching process can be initiated to gain a higher level of understanding. Psychomotor domain This portion is the skills-based domain. Through imitation, manipulation, precision, articulation and naturalization the learner puts into practice what he has learned. The learner is able to demonstrate self-assessment skills accompanied by self-correction and self-feedback.
The demonstrated ability to care for one’s self is evidence of competency Conclusion As true to any system, Bloom’s Taxonomy has been continually evaluated for its relevancy and has been revised in 2001. Nursing as a whole is a system, which has shown the value of process improvement through evidenced based practice outcomes. Forehand, indicated the revision made Bloom’s more easily utilized by other medical professional, (Forehand, 2010). Improving patient outcomes is at the heart of nursing education, (Journal of Continuing Education for Nursing, 2011).
This framework allows not only for patient outcomes driven education, but is also translated into the training curriculum for today and tomorrows practitioners.
Forehand, M. (2010, April). Bloom’s Taxonomy: Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching, and Techonology. Retrieved from http://projects. coe. uga. edu/epltt/index. php? title=Bloom%27_Taxonomy J Contin Educ Nurs. 2011 Jul;42(7):321-7. doi: 10. 3928/00220124-20110621-05 Larkin, B. , ; Burton, K. (2008). Evaluating a case study using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Education. AORN Journal, 88(3), 390. doi:10. 1016/j. aorn. 2008. 04. 020