BRIEFLY COMMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT. EXPLAIN THE VIEW THAT ‘THE IMPORTANCE OF WORK VALUES CONSTITUTES LINKING GOALS, PROVIDING INFORMATION, AND ORGANIZATIONAL SAVVY. Developmental Theory by Donald Super. The developmental theory of career development was founded by Donald Super (1957) and other theorists who recognizes the changes that people go through as they mature. It focuses on human development across a person’s life. According to Donald, career patterns are determined by socioeconomic factors, mental and physical abilities personal characteristics and the opportunities to which persons are exposed.
To him, people will seek career satisfaction through the work roles in which they can better express themselves and implement and develop their self-concepts. Career maturity was Donald Super’s main concept in his theory manifested in how people successfully accomplish during the age and stage developmental tasks across the life span. An underlying model of Super’s theory is self-concept—vocational self concept develops through physical and mental growth, observations of work, identifications of with working adults, general environment and general experiences.
According to Super’s as experiences increases in relation to awareness of world of work, the more complex vocational self concept is formed. Super’s contribution was the formulation of stages and developmental tasks over the life span. The first stage begins with the growth stage which falls between 14 to 15 years characterized by forming self-concept, developing capacity, attitudes, interest, needs, and general understanding of the world of work. Secondly, the exploratory stage between 15 to 24 years.
Here, the individual tryout through classes, work experience, collects relevant information, tentative choice and related skill development. Adding to the above the establishment stage between 25 to 44 years deals with skill building and stabilization through work experience. Furthermore, where there is a continual adjustment process to improve position is the maintenance stage. The stage which deals with declination falls between 65years and above where the individual reduces in output and prepares for retirement.
Donald Super career move from one phase of change, so do people change with time and experience and progress through the following vocational development stages: 1) Crystallization stage, between 14 to 18 years where individuals develop and plan a tentative vocational goal. 2) Specification stage between 18 to 21 years where a person begins to firm his or her vocational goal. 3) Implementation stage which is between 21 to 24 years begins acquire skills required on the job or employment through training. ) Stabilization stage between 24 to 35 years here the individual work and actually confirms to career choice. 5) Consolidation stage 35 years and over where an individual aims at advancing in his /her career. After Super put across these stages he later added that we cycle and recycle throughout our life span as a quest to adapt changes in ourselves as well as to the trends in the workplace. The added vocational maturity factors include: 1) Awareness of the need to plan ahead. 2) Decision- making skills. 3) Knowledge and use of information resources. ) General career information. 5) General world of work information. 6) Detailed information about occupations of preference. Work values are the core elements that determine work satisfaction or dissatisfaction, motivation, preferences and alignment with the organization’s values. Since there are many assessment instruments available to measure interests, the value of understanding work values has been undetermined or underrated. It is therefore incumbent or the onus lies on advisors to be abreast with the following: 1) How values influence job satisfaction and success. ) Which important values are mission in an employee’s work and which unwanted circumstances are present. 3) Ways to help advisees identify and clarify their values. 4) Differences between exploring values. Advisors can also ask employee specific questions such as these to help clarify their work values. These include: 1) What brings you satisfaction from your work? 2) Which work values are the most important to your satisfaction on the job? 3) Which of these are not being sufficiently met in your present job? 4) How can you meet your top work values here?
The importance of work values in linking goals, providing information and organizational savvy are discussed below; The importance of work values in relation to linking goals, effective career advising must realistically link individuals’ career goals with the direction and need of the organization. It is imperative on advisors need to categorically state clearly the importance o this linkage and help advisee plan accordingly. It is therefore incumbent on advisors to understand the relevance of the following; 1) Balancing individuals’ wants with organizational needs. ) Targeting organizational competencies by job families or levels rather than by jobs or positions that can change. 3) Knowing the strategic direction of the company and making sure employees goals contribute to that end. Providing the following information’s; Work values provide information to employees and once they get the information, some of them will wish to search the organization with the use of the provided information which includes; 1) Knowing about positions, departments, trends and requirements or knowing where to find such information. ) Understanding the strategic direction of the organization. 3) Understanding and communicating the policies and procedures for the company’s staffing, training, compensation and personnel selection. 4) Having or building networks. 5) Helping employees understand the dynamics and culture of the organization. 6) Communicating organizational realities such as limitations and opportunities organizational savvy.
When employees are taken on newly in an organization and sometimes old employees’ advisors or employers are expected to communicate any informal organizational systems critical to career advancement and opportunities. The importance of the work values to organizational savvy include; 1) Industry and organizational trends and issues that may affect career development. 2) Importance of reputation and sponsors in achieving career goals 3) How to build a network using appropriate protocols. 4) Behaviors valued in the informal organizational culture that contribute to success.