Kofi Annan called for a reform in the UN General Assembly in regards to global politics. Annans process of reform was called ‘thinking anew’. In spite of Annans process of ‘thinking anew‘, more than 300 recommendations for reform have been filed. Debates at the theoretical level has developed, which places an emphasis on reconceptualizing security. Norms on security have changed from state-centered norms to globalization of security in which we consider human security norm. Also, the reconceptualization of peacekeeping evolved in a manner to integrate soft and hard power poles of activity.
This suggest, peacekeeping forces are able to use force to protect populations from imminent danger. The authors coined the term cosmopolitanism peacekeeping. According to the authors, cosmopolitan peacekeeping is the best set of ideas Africa should follow. The idea of cosmopolitan peacekeeping directs to international politics and the duty to protect civilians. The authors focus on Africa’s contributions to peacekeeping and building and suggest that with the ideas of cosmopolitan peacekeeping, security regime building and conflict resolution can be relevant in Africa.
The authors examine the conflict in Sierra Leone and apply which cosmopolitan peacekeeping were evident in this case study. Second, the authors explore the possibility of a cosmopolitan peacekeeping force emerging. The authors suggest, at regional and continental levels in Africa the ASF can possibly terminate conflict if they choose to employ ideas of cosmopolitan peacekeeping. Conflicts in Sierra Leone and Democratic Republic of Congo were thought to be irresolvably violent conflicts, but with robust peacekeeping strategies a certain degree of success can be recognized.
Success in Sierra Leone and DRC demonstrates, Africa has taken collective action and have began to show political will in response to Kofi Annans process of ‘thinking anew’. The evolution of the ASF is a demonstration of political commitment by Africa, and Mtimkulu suggests, Africa will no longer be the source of troops. In may of 2000, 500 UNAMSIL peacekeepers were kidnapped by rebel groups. The UK immediately sent troops to restore peace and ultimately set free the peacekeepers. With the use of unilateral and robust force, the British were able to free all hostages and orked to get UNAMSIL “back on their feet”. After the hostage event, the UN upped its force to 17,500 peacekeepers which ended the war in 2002. UNAMSIL developed many ’negative peace’ prospects that sought to help the people in their everyday lives. The Peacebuiding Commission reports there are many areas of difficulty Sierra is facing, internally. The need of a cosmopolitan military and law enforcement force is regarded by some as a must in order to protect civilians. Africa’s needs to create peace mechanisms lay in the hands of the AU and UN.
With forces that are able to protect civilians, people would feel a sense of security. Sierra Leone provides as an excellent case study. The case study of Sierra Leone is and can be used to give insight of what to place more emphasis on, in regards to what type of intervention is needed. In general, Africa is making its way towards a cosmopolitan community. The need to protect human security needs is not so much viewed as a utopian idea, in Africa. The UN record on peacekeeping operations Michael Doyle and Nicholas Sambanis The UN has a multidimensional management in confronting peace operations.
Many policy debates have been initiated over how to improve the UN’s peacebuilding capacity. Many of the UN’s failures have been highly publicized which in turn caused the uproar of debates. Peacebuilding and peacekeeping involve several practices, which include, mediation, observation, policing, tactical enforcement, conflict resolution, humanitarian assistance, reconstruction, and institutional transformation. The practices, according to the author, will help create and sustain peace. According to the authors, “for any conflict situation, “sustainable peace” is the best measure of successful peacekeeping. Peace building triangle- degree of hostility of the factions…the extent of local capacities remaining after the war, and …. the amount of international assistance provided. The article touches on this idea of the Peace building Triangle and explain how the UN has been able to employ it within various countries. Preventive diplomacy was created in the early 90’s. The “Agenda for Peace” has been the UNs doctrine since its origin. However, as time has seen different instruments have been used to establish and sustain peace.
Peacekeepers must remain neutral, un biased, and be impartial when dealing with conflicts. The fourth principle of peacekeeping is the non use of force. Multidimensional peacekeeping is aimed at developing internal transformations such as economic, political, and judicial reconstruction. The events in Bosnia and Somalia have caused the UN to rethink its policies of involvement. Many people were killed as a result of the UN remaining rather static before and during the wars within Bosnia and Somalia. A fourth generation of delegated peacekeeping was called during Clintons era.
The fourth generation peacekeeping properties include, robust doctrines and realistic mandates, and rapid deployment. After war, those who committed the worst crimes should be prosecuted in order for peace to rise. Individualize vs Collectivize, this prevents those single factions from gathering power again. Treaties are not always sufficient for successful peace. Treaties have to offer higher rewards than a continued fighting. Peacekeeping Triangle- peacemaking-peacekeeping-postconflict resolution- enforcement. The more factions in the process for peace, the more difficult it is to maintain peace.
Peacekeeping can be very challenging depending how the conflict started and what type of state the conflict is in. Participatory peace is employed when dealing with developed states and when peaces without an element of participation require a strong third party to intervene. The authors insist, the peacekeeping triangle seems to work. If the peacekeeping triangle is utilized, then peace can be predictable and maintained. Both articles discuss the UN and its established methods in dealing with peace. The articles place an emphasis on peacekeeping and peace building.