Age due| IMMUNISATION| No. of injection| BIRTH | BCG| 1| months| 6in1 and PCV:Diphtheria/Tetanus/Whooping Cough(Pertussis)/Hib(haemophi- lus influenza B)/IPV(Inaetivated Polio)/Hepatitis B (6in1),Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)| 2| 4months| 6in1 and Men C: Diphtheria/Tetanus/ Whooping Cough/Hib/Polio/Hepatitis B (6in1), Meningococcal (Men C)| 2| 6months| 6in1 and PCV and Men C: Diphtheria/Tetanus/ Whooping Cough /Hib/ Polio/ Hepatitis B (6in1),Pneumococcal (PCV)+Meningococcal (Men C)| 3| 12months| MMR and PCV: Measles/Mumps/Rubella(MMR)+Pneumococcal (PCV)| 2| 13months| Men C+Hib: Meningococcal C (Men C)+ Haemophilus Influenzae B(Hib)| 1-2| 4-5years| 4in1 and MMR: Diphteria/Tetanus/Whooping Cough/IPV (4in1), Measles/ Mumps/Rubella (MMR)| 2| | | | | | | | Infection Chain A model used to understand the infection process is the chain of infection, a circle of links, each representing a component in the cycle. Each link must be present and in sequential order for an infection to occure. The link are: infectious agent ,reservoir , portal of exit from the reservoir , mode of transmission and portal of entry into susceptible host. Understanding the characteristic of each links provides with methods to support vulnerable child and to prevent the spread of infection . An awareness of this cycle also provides with knowledge of methods of self-protection. Definitions: Infectious Agent: A microbial organism with the ability to cause disease. The greater the organism’s virulence ( ability to grow and multiply ), invasiveness ( ability to enter tissue ), and pathogenicity (ability to cause disease ), the greater the possibility that the organism will cause on infection. Infectious agent are bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites. *Reservoir: A place within which microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. For example , microorganisms thrive in human beings, animals and inanimate objects such as water, table tops and door knobs. *Portal of exit: A place of exit providing a way for a microorganism to leave the reservoir.
For example, the microorganisms may leave the reservoir through the nose or mouth when someone sneezes or cough. *Mode of transmission: Method of transfer by which the organism move or is carried from one place to another. The hands may carry bacteria from one person to another. *Portal of entry : An opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host. Portal include body orifices, mucus membrane or breaks in the skin. *Susceptible host : A person who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body ,multiplying, and resulting in infection. The host is susceptible to the disease, lacking immunity or physical resistance to overcome the invasion by the pathogenic microorganism. Infection chain how can be broken?
Diseases such as flu and colds are caused by viruses that infect the nose, throat and lungs. They usually spread from person to person when an infected person coughs or sneezes. They also can spread when a person touches a cold or flu viruses made ?? from another person on a desk, doorknob, desk, phone, or railing. Some viruses and bacteria can live two hours or longer on hard surfaces. If the person then touches his or her eyes, mouth, or nose before washing their hands, viruses or bacteria gain access to the body and infection can occur. Frequent hand washing and practicing other healthy habits can protect everyone from getting or spreading germs at home, work or school. Prevention of Influenza
The most important preventive measure against the flu is to get flu vaccination each fall. The best time for flu vaccines is from mid-October to mid-November. Flu season runs from October to May, and it takes about two weeks after vaccination for the body to create antibodies to protect you. These people should not be vaccinated: * People with a severe allergy to chicken eggs * Those who have had a severe reaction to an influenza vaccination in the past. * Those who developed Guillain-Barre syndrome within six weeks of a previous influenza vaccination. * People with moderate or severe illness that includes fever. These people should wait until they have recovered from the disease. For more information:
These additional recommendations may help to prevent the spread of infection and at work, and wherever you are: Avoid contact with people who have colds or the flu. When you are sick, keep your distance from others to protect them from getting sick, too. Stay home from work when you’re sick. You will help prevent others from getting your illness. Cough or sneeze into tissue and then throw it away. Cover your cough or sneeze hand, if you do not have a tissue. Then wash your hands. Wash your hands often throughout the day. When soap and hot water is available, wash your hands by rubbing them together to clean all surfaces. Do not touch your nose, eyes, or mouth.
Viruses and bacteria can enter your body easily by each of them. When soap and water are not available, use alcohol-based disposable wipes and hand sanitizer gel. For optimum performance, make sure the product is at least 60 percent alcohol. If using gel, rub it in your hands until they are dry. Practice other good health habits such as getting plenty of sleep, exercise, manage stress, drink plenty of fluids and eat nutritious food You should also educate children, for example, by the posters. Define incubation period The incubation period – the time from the moment of infection to come of symptoms. The Functions of Food We need food to live.
We cannot live without food beyond a short period. Food is therefore necessary for all living beings. Food performs the following four functions: 1. Growth: Food is essential for growth. Without food a living organism will stop growing. The living cells in our body multiply after getting nourishment from the food we eat. Insufficient or a wrong type of food does not help healthy growth. 2. Repair: Living organisms sometimes damage their parts by accident. Constant work also causes wear and tear of the body parts. If we get a wound or cut, it heals up after some time. If we damage our skin due to some burn etc. , it regains its shape in due course.
The body needs food for all these functions. 3. Energy: We spend our energy when we do work. That is why after doing considerable work, we get tired. We then need food and rest to regain the lost energy. If we do not get food, we would become weak. 4. Protection from Diseases: We need to protect our body from diseases and keep it healthy. For this, we need vitamins and mineral salts in our food. Vitamins neither provide energy nor do they repair or replace the worn-out parts. But they are essential for our proper health So, we need food which can give us all the ingredients required by our body. We also need sufficient food-neither more nor less.
That is to say, we should eat the right amount of food containing the right amount of nutrients. Deficiencies and food sources: Nutrients: * Proteins are crucial for the construction of new cells and the regeneration of existing ones. Are also involved in the creation of hormones and enzymes, of which the majority is dependent biochemical processes in the body. The ratio of animal protein to vegetable should be at intakes about 1 to 2 This means that the proteins zoonotic such as meat, eggs and dairy products constitute a third, a plant (nuts, seeds and legumes) 2/3 of the total amount of protein contained in the food. * Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for humans.
They can be found mainly in products of plant origin, which come in two forms. Complex carbohydrates, which is the so-called starch is contained in the rice, potatoes and cereals all of which are most valuable to the least processed – wholegrain foods. Complex carbohydrates are also present in other vegetables and fruits in smaller quantities. The second type of carbohydrates are simple sugars, referred to as “empty calories” because they do not provide the body with nothing but energy. They are derived from sugar beet, and fructose, or fruit sugar. * Fats and carbohydrates as well as provide the necessary power to function properly. Caloric content of fat, however, is almost twice as high as other nutrients.
In addition, the body is enriched with extremely important for health, such as vitamins A, E and D. Particularly valuable for human occurring unsaturated fats are primarily in plant. When placing your menu, remember that excess fat can be harmful. Unused causes increase in body fat, which can lead to weight gain, and the cholesterol contained therein affects the circulatory system thus increasing the risk of heart attack. Often do not even realize how much fat we eat. Large amounts of this substance can be found in cheese, ice cream, cream and meat. * Vitamins and minerals are small volume components of our food. Their meanings, however, disproportionate to the amount supplied to the organism.
They are necessary for the proper conduct of almost all processes in the human body. Unfortunately, none of the food product does not contain a set of specific substances. That is why it is important to diversify the diet of each of us. Vitamins are molecules that are not permanent, they are subject to degradation by heat, preservatives, light and other external factors. Therefore, you should eat as much fresh fruit and vegetables, not subjected to intense heat treatment or chemical processes. For seasoning is best to use fresh herbs, and choose wholemeal flour products (wholemeal). As for sodium chloride, which is commonly used salt should not be exaggerated.
Is a compound that both deficiency and excess can harm, and recent research on the amount of consumption that in Poland is definitely overused. Vitamins: For the fat-soluble vitamins are: * Vitamin A (axerophthol, retinol) Ensure the proper functioning of the epithelial cells of the skin, cornea, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Prerequisite for proper growth and ensures normal vision. Increases resistance to pyogenic infection. Deficiency symptoms include night blindness (called night blindness, or lack of ability to see in dim light); kseroftalmia (blurred vision caused by corneal epithelial keratosis) mucosal disease, the tear glands and sweat glands, dry, scaly skin, growth impairment.
Sources of vitamin A include cod liver oil, butter, eggs, cheese, milk, liver, carrots, tomatoes, peppers and spinach leaves. Adult daily requirement is 1 mg. * Vitamin D (kalcyferol) Determines the proper development of bones, because it stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the intestine and affect their proper distribution and use in the process of ossification. The symptoms of vitamin deficiency are rickets in children caused by abnormal bone formation, loss of teeth, increased bone fragility, bone softening in adults. Vitamin D is a fat fish (fish oil), eggs, milk, butter and yeast. Adult daily requirement is 0. 01 mg. * Vitamin E (tocopherol)
Determines the normal process of reproduction and pregnancy affects fertility and preventing miscarriages. Ensure the good functioning of the muscle tissue and has antioxidant properties, thus protecting other vitamins in the diet. Symptoms of deficiency include impaired fertility (including gonadal disease), abnormal pregnancy, paralysis and muscle degeneration. Sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils, wheat germ cereal, salad, milk, eggs, brown bread, beef, liver. Adult daily requirement is 10 mg. * Vitamin K (phylloquinone) Ensures proper blood clotting, as involved in the biosynthesis of prothrombin running in the liver. Symptom of vitamin K deficiency is prolonged blood clotting time. There may also be bleeding.
The source of this vitamin can be: liver, cabbage, spinach, alfalfa sprouts, cauliflower and soy oil. Adult daily requirement is about 0. 1 mg. For the water-soluble vitamins are: * Vitamin B1 (thiamine, vitamin B) Participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats in the body. Affects the biological oxidation processes and determines the proper functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of deficiency include diseases of the nervous system, and heart disease beriberi, which is associated with inflammation and degradation of nerve tissue, muscle atrophy and heart failure, metabolic disorders, lack of appetite.
This vitamin is found in yeast, liver, pork, cereals, wholemeal bread, carrots, tomatoes and apples. Adult daily requirement is 2 mg. * Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) It is a component of enzymes tract affects the metabolism of amino acids and glucose oxidation in cellular processes. Increases the overall immunity of the body and stimulates growth. The symptoms of vitamin deficiency are seborrheic dermatitis of the skin, creating a cold sores, or cracks in the corners of the mouth, inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva, inhibiting growth. Sources of vitamin B2 are: yeast, eggs, liver, cheese, meat, wheat and vegetables. Adult daily requirement is 2 mg. Vitamin B5 It is a component of coenzyme A, involved in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, as well as energy transfer. Also influences the state of the nervous tissue and skin. A deficiency of this vitamin can cause adrenal dysfunction, stunted growth, graying, as well as the formation of inflammatory skin conditions. The source of the following foods: peanuts, eggs, meat and liver. Adult daily requirement is 10 mg. * Vitamin B6 (pyrydoksal) It is a component of enzymes and regulates the metabolism of amino acids. It is involved in the processes of forming, acting element essential for the synthesis of porphyrins such as cytochromes and heme, a component of hemoglobin.
Deficiency symptoms include skin disorders, including seborrheic, depression, epilepsy in children, in adults anemia. Vitamin B6 occurs in meat, milk, liver, yeast, beans, seeds, cereals, and nuts. Adult daily requirement is 1-2 mg. * Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) Determine the development and maturation of erythrocytes in the bone marrow regulate the processes of hematopoiesis. It is also a component of enzymes involved in cellular oxidation in the metabolism of organic acids. Vitamin A deficiency can cause general weakness of the body, pernicious anemia and disorders of the nervous system. Its sources are meat, liver, eggs, and milk. Adult daily requirement is 0. 01 mg. * Vitamin B15 (pangamic acid)
Is involved in the biosynthesis of creatine and increases the activity of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. The symptoms of vitamin deficiency include itching, inflammation of the skin and inflammation of the liver. This vitamin can be found in yeast, meat and vegetable products. Adult daily requirement has not been established. * Folic acid (folate, vitamin Bc) Determines blood production in the bone marrow, is involved in the biological synthesis of nitrogenous bases, choline and certain amino acids. Deficiency of this vitamin can cause damage the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea and malabsorption in the intestines, as well as anemia associated with inflammation of the tongue. It occurs in yeast, liver, cauliflower, and green leafy vegetables.
Adult daily requirement is 0. 3 mg. * Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) It strengthens the immune system overall and participates in biological oxidation processes. Is an activator of many enzymes. Determines the proper absorption of iron and affects the connective tissue condition. He has also participated in the synthesis of adrenal hormones. Symptoms of vitamin C are: a reduction of the total resistance of the body, the blood vessels rupture, difficult healing wounds, scurvy (loss of teeth, ulcers and bleeding gums), pain and swelling of the joints. Found in fruits rose and black currant, citrus fruits, pickled cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, parsley and lettuce leaves.
Adult daily requirement is 100 mg. * Vitamin H (Biotin) It is a component of some enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. It affects the skin and hair to prevent seborrhea and inflammation, as well as hair loss. The symptoms of vitamin deficiency are skin inflammation, hair loss, and muscle aches. The sources of biotin are: yeast, milk, egg yolk, liver, carrots and raspberries. Adult daily requirement is 0. 1 mg. * Vitamin P (hesperidin) It has properties similar to vitamin C. Its deficiency can cause brittle blood vessels. Is present in citrus fruits and peppers. Adult daily requirement has not been established. * Vitamin PP (niacin, nicotinic acid)
It is responsible for the correct state of epithelial skin and gastrointestinal tract, as well as the nervous system. Regulates the processes of biological oxidation, being a component of the coenzymes NAD / NADH, which transfers electrons and hydrogen intracellular breathing. A symptom of this vitamin deficiency is pellagra, which is accompanied by diarrhea, dermatitis and dementia. Is contained in meat (mainly in the liver, kidney and meat fish), yeast, beer, seeds, peas and beans, bran and fresh vegetables. Adult daily requirement is 20 mg. * Choline It is involved in biochemical processes. Its deficiency can cause bleeding and bone deformities.
The source of this vitamin are green leafy vegetables and egg yolks. Adult daily requirement is approximately 1 g Micronutrients: * Magnesium Mg Assures proper ribosome structure, which determines the proper course of nucleic acid replication. Is an activator of many enzymes important enzymes involved in the biological synthesis of urea. Increases the viscosity of the cytoplasm and determines the correct state of the nervous system. Symptoms of deficiency may include: increased neuromuscular excitability, muscle cramps, muscle weakness and cardiac disorders. Adult daily requirement is about 0. 3 mg. * Zinc Zn It is a component of insulin, so involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins.
Is also involved in the processes of respiration and regulation of acid-base balance of the body. It is used in the formation of bone tissue. Symptoms of deficiency include cancer, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, diseases of the skin, eyes, gonads and bone, increased brittleness of hair and nails, slower wound healing. Adult daily requirement is about 13 mg. * Iron Fe It is a component of complex proteins such as hemoglobin (responsible for oxygen transport) and myoglobin (the storage oxygen in muscles) and the respiratory chain enzymes. Micronutrient deficiency symptoms are: anemia, disturbance respiratory arrhythmia, general weakness of the body, headaches. Adult daily requirement is about 13 mg. * Copper Cu
It is a component of certain enzymes, such as ascorbate oxidase and cytochrome oxidase. It is involved in the biosynthesis of heme and proteins found in blood plasma (ceruloplazminie). Symptom of deficiency of this element in the body is anemia. Adult daily requirement is approximately 5 mg. * Manganese Mn It is necessary for the proper development of tissues. Interacts with vitamins of the B group and cytochromes and increases the absorption of copper in the body. It is also important activator of enzymes. Symptoms of deficiency include weakness of the connective tissue, eye, and skeletal deformities. Adult daily requirement is approximately 3 mg. * Chromium Cr
It is an important component of enzymes that are involved in the process of assimilation of glucose. If the deficiency may increase blood cholesterol levels and impaired glucose absorption. Adult daily requirement is about 0. 5 mg. * Cobalt Co Is an essential component of vitamin B12, which is responsible for the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells). As a result of this deficiency anemia element can occur, as well as disorders of protein synthesis and nucleic acids. Adult daily requirement is about 0. 3 mg. * Fluoride F It is the element that allows the normal development of teeth and keeping it in good condition. With the shortage of dental caries can occur.
Adult daily requirement is about 2 mg. * Selenium Se There is some toxin neutralizing agent, such as cadmium and mercury. It also has properties to stimulate the heart. Symptoms of deficiency include hemolysis and impaired muscle. Adult daily requirement is approximately 0. 01 mg. * As Arsenic Element is involved in the metabolism of compounds such as methyl or arginine. Symptoms of a deficiency may include impaired growth and impaired reproduction. Adult daily requirement has not been established. * Nickel Ni Component of urease – an important enzyme. In the case of deficiency may be disturbed metabolism of iron and nitrogen. Adult daily requirement has not been established. Silicon Si He is a structural role in the body. Symptoms of deficiency include bone deformities, skin disorders (such as acne) and hair, lack of firmness of the skin, hair loss, bedsores. Adult daily requirement has not been established. * Iodine I It is a component of thyroid hormones, such as thyroxine having an impact on many important functions of the body (among other things, the pace and energy metabolism, heart rate, irritability of the nervous system). Symptoms of deficiency include thyroid disease (the formation of the will), and mental retardation. Adult daily requirement is about 0. 1 mg. * Boron B Regulates growth, especially cell division.
It also participates in the synthesis of nucleic acids and is involved in the control of biological membranes. Adult daily requirement has not been established. * Lithium Li Reduces the excitability of nerve, because it works in competition with sodium ions. As a result of lithium deficiency can lead to the creation of mental disorders (such as manic-depressive illness). Adult daily requirement has not been established. * Cadmium Cd Probably is involved in chain elongation ribosomes. Symptoms of deficiency include impaired reproduction and weakening growth. Adult daily requirement has not been established. * Tin Sn Likely to affect the operation of riboflavin.
As in the case of cadmium, deficiency symptoms are disorders of reproduction and slowdown. Adult daily requirement has not been established. Macronutrients: * Carbon C, hydrogen H, oxygen O These elements are essential components of all the organic compounds (including fats, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids) contained in each cell of the body. Oxygen and hydrogen are also necessary for the components of the water of life. * Nitrogen N It is a component of all proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins and other important compounds. Symptoms of deficiency of this element are: disturbances in nitrogen balance, which is a consequence of weight loss (weight loss), and swelling.
In the case of long-term nitrogen deficiency may cause necrosis or cirrhosis. * Sulfur S It is a component of important amino acids, such as cysteine ?? or methionine. Is also included in many coenzymes and other compounds. Affects the mechanical properties of proteins that build creations corneum. As a result of deficiency of this element can occur systemic imbalance. * Phosphorus P It is present in body fluids, bones and nervous tissue. It is a component of nucleic acids, conveying energy such as ATP and ADP, and coenzymes. Symptoms of deficiency include: inhibition of metabolic processes (among other breathing); rickets. * Sodium In Affects the polarization and depolarization of the cell membrane.
Determines the osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid and plasma. With its deficiency can lead to loss of potential and loss of cell excitability. * Chlorine Cl Is a factor in maintaining proper ion balance in the body, comes in the stomach, where the HCl is an activator of enzymes and causes sterilization of food. It also affects the ability of carbon dioxide release from the erythrocytes. When this element deficiency disorders may occur in the process of breathing and digestion. * Potassium K Is an activator of many enzymes. Is responsible for the polarization and depolarization of the cell membrane. Affects the intracellular fluid osmotic pressure by changes in hydration of the cytoplasm.
Potassium deficiency symptoms are muscle weakness in both skeletal and smooth, weakening the heart muscle (which is also the heart rate), general weakness of the body. * Calcium Ca Is an activator of many enzymes and a component of body fluids. An element, is a component of proteins, such as bone and collagen. Affect the excitability of cells, and is involved in blood clotting. Symptoms of deficiency of this element can include: brittle bones, rickets, dental disease, metabolic disorders, reduce blood clotting. Identify the factors that influence food intake (e. g. religious, cultural, income) Different cultures may encourage or frown upon consumption of different foods by individuals who belong to their groups.
Also the consumption of different foods at different stages of life may be actively encouraged or discouraged. This is due to the benefits and dangers of consuming these foods at certain times of life and in certain conditions. For example most cultures will not approve of the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy or lactation. This is due to the adverse affects produced by this drink. Foods and nutrition may also be affected by culture, with respect to different beliefs within the culture. Religion plays one of the most influential roles in the choices and subsequent selection of foods consumed in certain societies. For example, in the Hindu and Buddhist religions the consumption of both pork and beef is frowned upon.
This is because it is considered to not be clean meat. Also ancient Hindu scriptures prohibit the eating of these meats. As a result of this the large majority of Hindus and Buddhists (roughly 90%) have taken this rule to the extreme. They refuse to eat any meat at all and are strict vegetarians, despite being allowed to eat chicken and lamb. Conversely only the consumption of pork and not beef is prohibited for the same reasons in the Islamic religion and Judaism. However all other meats consumed in these religions must be halal and kosher respectively. This means that special prayers are performed in order to make the eating of these animals acceptable.
In stark contrast Christianity and the Catholic religion allow the consumption of any types of meat without the need for any kind of repentance to God in the form of prayer. Also at the other extreme to these religions the Jain religion does not allow the eating of any meat and any vegetables grown beneath the soil. During my community placement the first patient I interviewed had her diet largely influenced by her religious beliefs. For example she was a strict Hindu who was also a vegetarian. She did not even eat any dairy products. Her diet largely consisted of boiled rice and a wide selection of vegetables, and for dessert some fresh fruit.
My second and third patients were both Christians and their diets were not as strict and were more varied and balanced. As a result I would not consider these patients to have their food choices largely affected by their religion. Another personal factor, which affect food choices, is the occupation of the patient. This factor directly influences the people’s social class. In certain professions such as manual labour and driving, which are associated with low socio-economic status, food choices are often limited. Geographical factors such as where people live and the range of shops situated near them may influence their choice of foods. These factors are usually enforced upon these individuals.
For example, some low-income families may live far away from certain shops. These families may not be able to afford a car or to pay regularly for public transport to travel to where more shops are situated. As a result, their food choices will be limited only to local shops, which may have a poor selection of certain foods and even lack other foods. There are many other factors, which affect the choices and selection of food we eat. Among these is the age of the individual choosing the food. Children will usually choose to eat foods such as fish fingers, chicken nuggets and jelly, which are principally foods developed for younger people than older people.
Children will also refrain from drinking alcohol, tea and coffee, which are seen as adult drinks and are not consumed in large quantities or frequently by most children. Young people will on the whole have less regard for their general health and state of their bodies. This is in some cases because they do not fully understand what effect different foods have on their bodies. Another factor affecting the choice and selection of foods is ethnicity. Different ethnic groups will choose and select different foods. This is because people who belong to ethnic groups will have been raised and brought up in a certain style and manner. This means factors such their outlook and attitudes towards life and people, health and even food choices will be greatly influenced by their ethnic group.
These factors among others are instilled into individuals of these groups at an early age. The different values, which influence these factors, emanate from the country where each of these ethnic groups originates. For example African and Afro Caribbean groups will usually consume foods, which contains a lot of various meats and a lot of wheat and rice. Eastern and far eastern groups will consume foods, which contains a lot of various herbs and spices. Typical western groups will consume foods, which are much dryer and plainer than other ethnic groups. There are many personal factors, which affect the choices and selection of different foods.
Health care professionals must be aware of these factors in order to be able to work and subsequently help people from a wide range of different cultures and ethnic groups. As a result it is necessary to appreciate and acknowledge the large impact culture and ethnicity has on food choices, eating styles and patterns. PRINCIPLES OF HEALTHY NUTRITION Keep a variety of edible products. Beware of overweight and obesity, do not forget about your daily physical activity. Cereal should be your main source of energy (calories). Eat every day at least two large glasses of milk. Milk can be replaced with yogurt, kefir, and partly cheese. Eat meat in moderation. Eat every day a lot of vegetables and fruits.
Reduce the intake of fat, in particular animal, and also products containing a lot of cholesterol and trans fatty acids. Keep moderation in the consumption of sugar and sweets. Limit your intake of salt. Drink enough water. Do not drink alcohol. 1. You should consume products from different food groups (to take care of variety of meals) The food products include essential nutrients in different quantities and proportions. There is a food product that would provide all the nutrients in adequate quantities. Prevent shortages in the daily diet should include products from all groups: grains, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy products, products that provide complete protein.
The principle of diversification should cover all meal . your menu should be guided by the principles of healthy eating and the additional information contained in the Pyramid Healthy Nutrition. 2. Control your body weight (take care to preserve the predicted body weight) Overweight and obesity is not just an aesthetic issue, but the disease, which is the cause of other diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and many others. To maintain normal weight should eat according to the rules of healthy eating. An overweight or obese should: Limit intake of fats, both visible (butter, oil, etc. ) and invisible (eg contained in cakes, bars, fatty meats species, etc. Give up the consumption of fast food and sweets, and sweeten Increase your intake of beverages fruits and vegetables Avoid fried foods and baked traditionally due to the high content of fat used in their preparation. We recommend cooking in aluminium foil sleeve, on the grill, cooking, steaming, braising roast without Eliminate seasoned dishes, cream and flour Renunciation diet combined with physical activity 3. Cereal should be the main source of energy Cereal should be the primary source of energy in the human diet. These products provide complex carbohydrates, fiber and protein. The vitamins contain primarily B vitamins and vitamin E. They also provide minerals such as iron, copper, magnesium, zinc and potassium and phosphorus.
Nutritional value of cereal products is dependent on the degree of milling of grain in the course of which are disposed outside of the nutrient-rich. Lower content of vitamins and minerals are characterized by products derived from a higher degree of milling, the flour and bread are whiter and finer grits. However, the thick brown bread and cereal are characterized by a higher content of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. 4. Milk and milk products should be a regular part of your daily diet Milk and milk products are not only the main source of calcium in the diet, but also provide protein of high biological value and the B vitamins, as well as A and D. These products are also a source of minerals such as magnesium, potassium and zinc.
Due to the content of saturated fatty acids in milk fat should be selected milk and dairy products low in fat. 5. Eat meat in moderation, replace them with fish and legumes. Meat is a good source of protein, as well as B vitamins, particularly B1, B12, PP, and easily absorbable iron. You should choose lean meats, and replace them with legumes and fish (it is recommended to consume 2-3 servings 150g per week). Both legumes and fish and eggs are a good source of complete protein. Eggs as meat, contains almost all of the nutrients needed by an organism. The egg yolk is included, however, a large amount of cholesterol. Fish meat compared contain more minerals.
They are a good source of iodine and fluorine. Featured are especially marine fish due to the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3. Rosliny plants are a source of complex carbohydrates and B vitamins and minerals such as iron, phosphorus and calcium. 6. Eat fruits and vegetables every day Vegetables and fruits should be included in the daily diet, as they are a valuable source of vitamins, especially vitamin C and B – carotene. They also provide folic acid. They contain significant amounts of minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium. Contained in fruits and vegetables, dietary fiber is not digested by the enzymes of the digestive tract.
It fulfills a very important role, in particular has the ability to regulate the digestive work preventing constipation, a beneficial effect on cholesterol levels and blood glucose blood . most vegetables and fruit has a high water content (80-90%), which results in their low calorific value. 7. Limit your intake of fat, especially animal Traditional Polish diet rich in fats. It is recommended to reduce total fat intake below 30% of daily energy needs. Limit consumption of animal fats and products especially rich in cholesterol is a prerequisite for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Reducing fat intake is also important in the prevention and treatment of obesity . emember that fat is the most calorie nutrient – 1g of fat provides 9 calories, and protein or carbohydrate 4 kcal. know that fats are consumed, not only in the form of “visible “(butter, oil, margarine, lard, fat on meat and sausages), but also in the form of” invisible “in the foods and products (meat, cheese, confectionery). Animal fats contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. It is advisable to replace animal fats vegetable. Among the various culinary techniques is recommendable cooking, baking or braising without added fat. Also cooking on the grill will reduce the amount of fat. 8. Avoid sugar and sweets Sugar does not provide any essential nutrients, but is a source of “empty” calories.
Products supply of “empty” calories to be understood as the product is not in any organism enrichment nutrients, supplying only kalorii. Nadmierne intake of simple sugars that could in turn lead to obesity. These products also play a major role in the formation of dental caries. 9. Limit your intake of salt Sodium salt contained in an important role in the metabolic processes in the body. However, its very high levels in the diet may contribute to increased blood pressure. Daily salt intake should not exceed 5 – 6 g (1 level teaspoon). The current level of salt consumption in Poland is three times higher than recommended. Postpone salting and also limit the addition of salt at the time of preparation.
You should know that salt is added in large quantities in industrial food production, the production of canned food, meat, cheese, pickles, smoked meats, marinades and soups, and some spices. It is recommended to replace the traditional salt available on the market niskosodowymi salts or mixtures of different types of herb and spices. 10. Drink enough water. Water is supplied in the form of the body, and along with beverages consumed, and food products. The body can not store large quantities of water and insufficient fluid intake can quickly lead to dehydration, so be sure to drink often, in moderate quantities. It is recommended to consume at least 2 liters of beverage a day. Versatile drink that can be used to quench your thirst is water. However, to limit the consumption of sweetened beverages. 11. Do not drink alcohol
Alcohol is very calorie product does not contain any essential nutrients, in patients with elevated triglyceride levels conducive to their continued growth. The excess also raises blood pressure. Keep in mind that frequent consumption of even moderate amounts can lead to addiction. Alcohol should be consumed in moderation. It should not be more than 2 drinks per day. The drink is considered one shot of vodka, a glass of wine (75-100ml) or a glass of beer. PRINCIPLES OF HEALTHY NUTRITION FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH SCHOOL AGED (Institute of Food and Nutrition, 2009) 1. Eat every different products in each group included in the pyramid. 2. Be physically active every day – move a positive effect on efficiency and good posture. 3.
Source of energy in your diet should be mainly products in the base of the pyramid (bottom). 4. Eat at least 3-4 servings daily of milk or milk products such as yogurt, kefir, buttermilk, cheese. 5. Eat 2 servings daily of a group of products – meat, fish, eggs. Consider also pulses. 6. Each meal should contain vegetables or fruits. 7. Reduce the intake of fat, in particular animal. 8. Limit your intake of sugar, sweets, sugary drinks. 9. Limit consumption of salty products, aside shaker. 10. Drink adequate amount of water daily. Portion size relevant to age and size: An important element of rational nutrition is adequate number of meals a day and their proper timing.
Preschool children should eat 4-5 meals a day (main meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner, and additional meals: lunch and afternoon tea) every 3-4 hours. Regular food regulates metabolism and helps to keep your blood glucose at the right level, and this in turn promotes good form and being of a child during the day. In the case of children attending preschool facility should provide 3 meals a total energy value covering 75% of the daily ration. How many calories child need? 1 year old – 900 2-3 year old – 1000 4-8 year old – 1400 (boys), 1200 (girls) Role of diet in the treatment of the: *Diabetes Mellitus: Diet in Diabetes is one of the therapeutic elements, as important as pharmaceutical treatment.
Nutrition affects not only the disease, but also on the physical development of the child. This article is devoted to the general principles of nutrition of children with type I diabetes, which are necessary dietary advice tailored directly to the patient – his age, lifestyle, presence of other diseases and complications. Diet in type 1 diabetes Proceedings diet in children with diabetes is important. Proper nutrition combined with insulin therapy determines the values ?? of glucose, which has a direct impact on the health of the patient and a small risk of complications. The diet should be determined individually, especially in patients with compromised organ. Diabetes – diet of young children
Step 1 Carbohydrates should provide over 50% of the daily energy supply. Recommended products with low glycemic index such as vegetables, fruits and grains, also rich in dietary fiber. Simple sugar intake should not exceed 10% of the daily food ration. In this case, you should limit sweet and fizzy drinks and sweet snacks (chocolate, candy, candy bars, sweet rolls, jams). Step 2 Monounsaturated fatty acids should be from 10 to 20% of the energy. The sources are primarily vegetable oils, olive, nuts and avocados. Pay attention to the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6, which are primarily a source of fish and oils. Fish should be eaten at least 2 times a week.
Step 3 Saturated fats (butter, cream, fatty meat and dairy products) is worth while substitute vegetable oils. Step 4 The protein should be consumed in quantities of less than 1 g per kg of body weight a child, half of which should be of plant origin (vegetables, legumes, grains, nuts). Step 5 Should limit salt intake to a maximum of 6g per day (1 teaspoon). This can be achieved by reducing the feed children processed foods, salting food on the plate and replace salts and spice blends with the addition of herbs and natural spices. Step 6 It is also a diet rich in natural antioxidants mainly in vegetables and fruits. Thanks to them, is likely to reduce the risk of health complications.
Step 7 Recommended feeding model is based on the Mediterranean diet, which consists of reducing the consumption of red meat, processed much cereal products (white bread), whole milk and milk products for fish, vegetables and fruit. Diabetes children, infant nutrition Infants suffering from type I diabetes should be fed naturally, and in the diet of young children meals with a high glycemic index should be gradually replaced bogatoblonnikowymi products (cereal, rice, pasta, whole wheat bread, bran, vegetables). Meals should be consumed in an amount of 5-6 often daily. Young children are very busy, especially in the afternoon, so be aware of the meal.
It is also recommended in the diet with vitamin supplements. It is important to make it more attractive meals to be consumed eagerly and your children. Nutrition and diabetes in children of school age In the group of school-age children is very important to the proper distribution of food, in order to prevent hypoglycemia. Should plan meals that do not lead to an excessive drop in blood sugar levels caused by physical activity. You should know that at the age of 6-12 years old children need twice as many calories, their growth and development is then bolstered. Type 1 diabetes in children older In adolescence, it is important to control body weight and growth rate.
Both excess and deficiency in diabetic weight is not favourable for the disease. Meals should be eaten 3 times a day. Additional small snacks are dependent on insulin treatment and its type. *Cystic Fibrosis: And high-energy diet rich in protein, supplements, vitamins and adequate supply of pancreatic enzyme preparations are the basic elements of the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Demand for energy in children with cystic fibrosis is very different – depends primarily on the respiratory health and efficiency of the pancreas. High energy diet and supplementation, adequate supply of vitamins and pancreatic enzyme preparations are key elements of treatment of cystic fibrosis.
Demand for energy in children with cystic fibrosis is very different – depends primarily on the respiratory health of the pancreas and efficiency: the more frequent pneumonia and the more severe are the symptoms of impaired digestion and absorption – the higher the demand for energy and nutrients. *Coeliac Didease: The therapeutic basis of celiac disease is a constant, closely followed gluten-free diet. Although most patients symptoms of gluten intolerance decreases with age, but for all patients diagnosed with celiac disease, regardless of its form, the diet should be followed for life. The gluten-free diet must be strictly eliminated: – Flour: wheat flour – Cereal: barley, semolina, couscous – Cereals: wheat, oats – Wheat bran and oatmeal, wheat germ – Simple and crisp bread with gluten flour and pasta from flour prohibited – muesli , Sausages, black pudding, puddings (in technological processes often are added to the bread wheat or semolina) – Coffee and cocoa oatmeal cereal – Crackers, biscuits, wafers, cells and other gluten flour cakes – Candy bars, chocolate, candy filled, chips, halva – Ice cream with autamatu – The chewing gum of each type of – Products with the addition of malt – Yogurt containing modified starch unknown origin – Tomato sauce (may contain flour), but do not puree – Plain baking powder and traditional puddings – Breaded intermediates, concentrates, soups and sauces – Canned meat and fish Health Promotion Contents of a first aid and medicine cabinet: * 1 small roller bandage * 1 large roller bandage * 1 small conforming bandage * 1 large conforming bandage 2 eye pads with bandage * Scissors * Calamine cream * Pack of gauze swabs * Hypoallergenic tape * 2 sterile pads * Waterproof plasters * 1 finger bandage and applicator * Tweezers * 1 folded triangular bandage * 1 sterile dressing with bandage * Safety pins Other useful items: * Flannel: use a flannel soaked in water to make a cold compress * Plastic bags: a clean plastic bag can be put over a burned foot or hand and lightly secured with bandages or tape Medicine cabinet: * Digital thermometer * Paracetamol and ibuprofen * antibacterial ointment * heating pad or hot water bottle * antihistamine for allergy * Sunscreen *Insect repellent *