What is leadership? Leadership – The activity of leading a group of people in an organization or the ability to do this. In its, essence leadership in an organization role involve. * Establishing a clear vision. * Sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly. * Proving the information, knowledge and method to realize that vision. * Coordinating and balancing the conflicting interest of all members. A leader comes to the forefront in case of crisis, and is able to think and act in creative ways in difficult situations.
Unlike management, leadership flows from the core of personality and cannot be taught, although it may be learn through coaching or mentoring. I will present some various examples of the definitions of leaderships by famous scholars below. “Leaders are individuals who establish direction for a working group of individuals who gain commitment form these group of members to this direction and who then motivate these members to achieve the direction’s outcomes. ” – Conger, J. A. ‘Learning to Lead’ San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (1992, p18) Leadership (according to John Sculley) revolves around vision, ideas, direction, and has more to do with inspiring people as to direction and goals than with day-to-day implementation.
A leader must be able to leverage more than his own capabilities. He must be capable of inspiring other people to do things without actually sitting on top of them with a checklist. ” – Bennis, W. ‘On Becoming a Leader’ Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, (1989, p. 139) “Leadership is a development of a clear and complete system of expectations in order to identify evoke and use the strengths of all resources in the rganization the most important of which is people. ”- Batten, J. D. ‘Tough-minded Leadership’ New York: AMACOM (1989 p. 35) (Even in ancient times the concept of leadership already exists. ) The superior leader gets things done with very little motion. He imparts instruction not through many words but through a few deeds. He keeps informed about everything but interferes hardly at all. He is a catalyst, and though things would not get done well if he weren’t’t there, when they succeed he takes no credit. And because he takes no credit, credit never leaves him.
Lao Tse, 604-531 B. C. , Chinese philosopher and founder of Taoism, Tao Te Ching Through this few examples I concluded that in my opinion, leadership is about how to coordinate people to work towards the desire vision. Trait Theory Researches in the 20th century focused on identifying the qualities of good leaders and the styles of leadership manager should use. In Bass’ (1989 & 1990) theory of leadership stated that some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory. Trait theory Some people were born with certain traits that made them effective leaders, whereas others were born without leadership traits * Traits generated by early research include: * Physical characteristics – This refer to the looks, appearance, grooming of the manager.
* Social characteristics – These traits are related to the ability to be sociable, communication skills and ability to get along with others. * Personality – These are associated with the individual’s character. Effective leaders usually exhibit an out-going, aggressive personality. Intelligence characteristics – These characteristics refer to the ability of the individual to use his mental abilities to assess issues, make decisions and solve problems. * Work related characteristics – Such characteristics refer to the individual’s attitude towards work, such as whether he is ambitious, achievement-oriented and sets high goals to achieve. * Further research found that not all leaders posses the same traits. No leadership trait has been found to relate consistently to group performance. * Nowadays, people no longer believe that a person is born to be a leader.
Many of the traits possessed by leaders can be learned or developed. * Possessing leadership traits is not enough to make a person a successful leader she/he must take action. One of the most widely accepted system use for categorizing the characteristics that make up an individual’s unique personality is the Big Five model, which rates an individual according to openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Several of the Big Five personality traits have been related to leadership emergence and leadership effectiveness.
Traits| Description| Openness| Being curious, original, intellectual, creative and open to new ideas| Conscientiousness| Being organized, systematic, punctual, and dependable| Extraversion| Being outing, active, talkative, sociable and enjoying social situations| Agreeableness| Being affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm| Neuroticism| Being anxious, irritable, temperamental and moody| Source: Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 59, 1216–1229.
Many studies searched for a limited set of personal attributes, or traits, which would someone be viewed as a leader and be successful as a leader. Some traits are consistently related to leadership, such as intelligence, personality, and integrity. The main limitation of the trait approach was that it ignored the situation in which leadership occurred. For example, bravery is likely to be a key characteristic in military leaders but not necessarily in business leaders. Therefore, it is more useful to specify the conditions under which different traits are needed.
Behavior approach leadership When researchers failed to identify a set of traits that would distinguish effective from in ineffective leaders, research attention turned to the study of leader behaviors. So researchers at Ohio State University and University of Michigan came up with two broad categories of behavior: task-oriented behaviors and people-oriented behaviors. Task-oriented leader behaviors involve structuring the roles of subordinates, providing them with instructions, and behaving in ways that will increase the performance of the group.
Task-oriented behaviors are directives given to employees to get things done and to ensure that organizational goals are met. People-oriented leader behaviors include showing concern for employee feelings and treating employees with respect. People-oriented leaders genuinely care about the well-being of their employees and they demonstrate their concern in their actions and decisions. Leader decision making Another question researchers focused on was how leaders actually make decisions, and the influence of decision-making styles on leader effectiveness and employee reactions.
Therefore they come up with 3 concepts which are autocratic decision making, democratic decision making, and Laizzes faire decision making. Autocratic decision making (High concern for the task) In autocratic decision making, leaders make the decision alone without necessarily involving employees in the decision-making process. * Usually keep decisions and controls to themselves. * Depends on his ability to reward and punish to get work out. * Does not try to get close to his group members remaining aloof while he issues orders.
Democratic decision making (High concern for both people and the task) When leaders use democratic decision making, employees participate in the making of the decision. * Most major decisions are made after discussion with group members. * The leader strives to maintain high rapport within the group. * Share decisions with the group, encourage participations, and support the task efforts of others. Laizzes faire decision making (Low concern for both people and the task) leaders using laissez faire decision making leave employees alone to make the decision; the leader provides minimum guidance and involvement in the decision. Turn most decisions over to group and show little interest in the work process or its results.
* The emphasis is on encouraging individual performances by providing an unrestricted environment. * Allows his subordinates complete freedom in planning their activities and offers guidance only in response to direct questions. So the common question would be asked. Which decision making style is the best? Research did not identify one decision making style as the best one. It seems that the effectiveness of the style the leader is using depends on the circumstances.
There are examples of effective leaders using both authoritarian and democratic styles. For example, Larry Page and Sergey Brin at Google are known for their democratic decision making styles. At Hyundai USA, high-level managers use Autocratic decision making styles, and the company is performing well. Contingency approach/Situation Researches indicate that the different ways of leading are more/less appropriate depending on the characteristic of the overall situation.
The basic contingency assumption is that the match of leadership style and situation determines leadership success. The contingency approach examines he work situation and then seeks the manager whose style is suitable for that situation. In layman terms; finding the right man for the right job. Choice of leadership style Nature of task Organizational climate Subordinate’s characteristics Manager’s past experience Expectation of superiors Choice of Leadership style Expectation of superiors Refer to the realistic expectation from the superior. The superior may expect his manager to achieve organizational goals regardless of what method is being used. Manager’s past experience The manager’s value and background will affect his choice of leadership style.
A manager tends to adopt the style that suits his personality. For example, an extraversion manager tends to be more of a democratic leader. Subordinate’s characteristics Subordinates may be used to a certain style, may be higly trained and independent, familiar with their work, and may expect the leader to have a certain style. For example, military. Organizational climate If the climate in an organization is authoritarian, then the manager is expected to control his subordinates closely. Nature of task This refers to the demands of the job. For example. An engineering film definitely need an individual with engineering background.
Based on all the theories and guides above I concluded that there are no best ways to contributes to an effective leadership. It is too uncertain to say one point is better than the other because of different circumstances. It became too unrealistic if I would say I think this is better because I predict that this is the circumstances. Every single point plays a part to be a great leader in their ways. Finally the last part I would talk about the consequences of poor leadership. A good example of a good leader that fall from grace would be Raymond Manuel Albert Domenech. Facts:
Raymond Domenech is a retired football player and the former manager of the France national team (from 2004-2010) During the 2006 world Cup Raymond Domenech France team was a penalty kick away from winning the 2006 World Cup. During the 2010 world cup Raymond Domenech was Sack. News articles extract: That ultra-maligned French coach Raymond Domenech ended his tenure by huffily refusing to shake the hand of opposing coach Carlos Alberto Parreira was a wince-inducing end to what The Independent’s Tim Rich calls “what must be the worst World Cup campaign ever staged by a major sporting nation. Les Bleus(France) crashed out in the group stage amid huge unrest in the camp, with Nicolas Anelka and Domenech involved in a bust-up which resulted in the Chelsea striker’s expulsion from the squad. Domenech’s reign was marred by bizarre coaching techniques and selection decisions, and Gallas concedes it was difficult for players to build a relationship with the coach. “There really was a communication problem,” added Gallas, who is a free agent after the expiration of his Arsenal contract. “Domenech was not open.
Many players could not speak with him. That was my case. “Domenech hammered into us time and again: ‘Put your egos to one side. ‘ But I believe that he forgot to do that himself,” said Gallas. There is many more news article surrounding this particular World Cup regarding France. It is obvious that there are some troubles in the team and management. In my opinion If players fail to gel with each other it is the manager’s responsibility to ensure they do. That’s his job, that’s what he is paid to do.
The fact that the France squad rebelled against Domenech, the fact that a senior player (Anelka) could insult the manager, shows that the French players did not respect Domenech. In a work environment, when you don’t respect someone (say your boss) it’s usually because he/she is incompetent.
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