Nebosh Paper Essay

International General Certificate Paper 1 Management of Health and Safety Question and Answers 1. (a) Outline the importance of monitoring as part of a health and safety management system (Sept 2008) (6) (b) Identify the (i) active (proactive), and (ii) reactive measures by which an organization can monitor its health and safety performance. (5) (5) (c) Explain why monitoring reports should be submitted to the chief executive or managing director of the organization. 4) Answer: a) The importance of monitoring as part of a health and safety management system is it reinforces management’s commitment to health and safety objectives; helps in developing a positive health and safety culture by rewarding good work; assures the compliance with the performance standards; identifies the areas for improvement; enables in making decisions for remedial measures for any identified deficiencies; assists in setting the targets for the future improvement of performance; it motivates managers and employees for better performance and continual improvement. ) (i) Active measures include safety inspections, surveys, safety tours, audits, sampling, health surveillance, behavioural observations, environmental monitoring, benchmarking with other organizations. Routine procedures to monitor specific objectives, regular review of performance; and recording of training needs; and delivery of suitable training. ii) Reactive measures include the accident and ill health statistics, reporting of near misses and dangerous occurrences, reporting of property damage, actions taken by the enforcement authorities, number of civil claims, analysis of absences and lost time, analysis of costs involved in the incidents. c) There are number of reasons why monitoring reports should be submitted to the CEO or Managing Director.

These include CEO is the ultimate responsibility to review the process, he has authority to take appropriate actions, he authorizes the resources necessary for implementation health and safety system, takes the disciplinary actions against employees where necessary and motivate staff with rewards. 1 2. (a) Outline the key features of (March 2009) (i) a health and safety inspection (4) (ii) a health and safety audit (4) (b) Explain how the findings of an audit may be used to improve health and safety performance. 12) Answer: 2 (a) (i) A workplace inspection involves physical inspection of a workplace, and the activities or equipment within it. It is generally carried out by supervisors and safety representatives at regular intervals and checklists are often used. The inspection looks for the unsafe acts and conditions and results in short report of its findings with suggestions for remedial actions to be taken. (a) (ii) Safety audit is a systematic and independent examination of an organizations health and safety system, involving the use of series of questions and document examination to collect objective evidence. Audits aim for assessing the effectiveness and reliability of the system. Audits suggest the corrective action to be taken. It is carried out by trained auditors. b) The findings of a safety audit may be used in a number of ways to improve health and safety performance, which include identifying strengths and weaknesses in the management system, identifying the compliance and non-compliance with the standards, identifying the remedial actions, enables the benchmarking with other organizations, assist in the continual improvement of the organization by regular audit intervals, assists in allocation and prioritize the resources, communicate these findings to the staff and the management, improve the health and safety performance etc. . Outline four proactive monitoring methods that can be used in assessing the health and safety performance of an organization. (8) Answer: Proactive methods that could have been outlined include, the audits which involve comprehensive and independently executed examinations of all aspects of the organizations health and safety performance against stated objectives.

Safety surveys, focusing on a particular activity such as manual handling, training programmes etc. Safety sampling, where specific areas of health and safety are targeted; safety tours involving unscheduled workplace inspections to check on issues such as wearing PPE and housekeeping. 4. An organization has been found to have inadequate standards of workplace health and safety. Identify the costs that the organization may incur as a result. (8) 2

Answer The costs incur for inadequate standard of workplace Health and safety include lost production, time dealing with the subsequent investigations; plant damage and replacement and clean up activities; paying those involved during absences as a result of accident or ill-health, having to recruit and train replacement labour and redeployment and/or rehabilitation costs on return to work; costs by fines from the enforcement authorities or by a civil claim from the injured, rise in insurance premiums, poor staff morale which could lead to industrial unrest and high staff turnover, the damage to the organization’s reputation which could lead to a loss of orders and a subsequent decrease in its profitability. 5. Identify possible influences on an organization’s health and safety management standards. 8) Answer The possible influences on an organization’s health and safety management standards include regulatory and enforcement authorities, and individual governments, industry based standards of good/safe practice; shareholder demands and expectations; that exerted by trade unions in seeking acceptable standards for their members; those exerted by insurance companies by placing requirements on employers as a condition of insurance; those from production demands and the pressure to cut costs in times of economic down turn; the need to maintain the organization’s reputation to meet the expectations of society in general and its customers in particular; the competence and experience of the workforce and its involvement and cooperation in setting and complying with the standards and finally the commitment of members of senior management themselves in setting and enforcing high standards for their company. 6. An organization is introducing a new work activity that requires a safe system of work. Explain: (a) Why it is important to involve workers in the development of a safe system of work; (4) (b) Why it is important for safe systems of work to have written procedures. (4) Answer (a) It is important to involve workers in the development of a safe system of work because of their knowledge of the particular working environment involved and what will work in practice.

Additionally, their involvement will establish their ownership of the system and will encourage them to use and follow it once it has been finalized and introduced. Finally their involvement will emphasize management’s commitment to health and safety and help to raise its profile within the organization. Once a safe system of work is developed, it is imperative that a clear method of communicating its procedures to the workforce is used and this would be better achieved in writing rather than orally. 3 (b) The procedures may contain complex information that will need to be consulted on more than one occasion to ensure the correct sequence of operations is followed.

Additionally, different people will need to be aware of the procedures and it is preferable to have them written down rather than pass them on by word of mouth, a method that may not always guarantee consistency in their presentation. A written document will also be needed for audit purposes and could be used as evidence in defending an enforcement action or a civil claim. Finally, the use of written procedures may well be a requirement of the organization’s quality assurance procedures. 7. An organization has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and associated ill-health. Identify sources of information that may be available to help reduce the risks to the workers. 8) Answer Sources of information that may be available to an organization to reduce the number of manual handling accidents include international agencies such as the ILO; national enforcement agencies such as the Health and Safety Executive in the United Kingdom; employers organizations and Trade Unions; national and international standards such as ISO; information from manufacturers and also from other organizations carrying out work of a similar nature; professional health and safety bodies such as IOSH in the United Kingdom; and consultation with the workers themselves who from their experience could be in a position to offer information on procedures that could be followed to reduce the risks. 8. (a) Outline why it is important for an organization to set health and safety targets. (2) (b) Identify health and safety targets that an organization could set. (6) Answer (a) To give evidence of management commitment, to motivating staff by providing them with something tangible to aim for; the important part they can play in facilitating the measurement and review of performance and for benchmarking against other like organizations. b) Identified targets such as reductions in the number of accidents and defined incidents; an improvement in the reporting of near miss incidents or minor accidents and an improvement in inspection and audit scores; a reduction in actions taken by the enforcement authorities and in the number of civil claims; a reduction in sickness absence and absenteeism; an improvement in the outcome of benchmarking of performance against like organizations; reduced insurance costs; an increase in the degree of worker involvement and additionally in the number of workers trained in health and safety. 4 9. Outline the factors that should be considered when assessing the health and safety competence of contractors. 8) Answer The factors when assessing the health and safety competence of contractors include: the contractor’s previous experience with the type of work to be carried out; the reputation of the contractor amongst previous or current clients; the quality and content of the health and safety policy and the systems in place for its implementation including the preparation of risk assessments, monitoring and consultation with the workforce; the arrangements in place for the management of sub-contractors; the level of training and qualifications of staff (including those with health and safety responsibilities); the contractor’s accident and enforcement history; membership of professional bodies; equipment maintenance and statutory examination records; and the detailed proposals, for example method statements, for the proposed work. 10. (a) Identify the key stages of a workplace risk assessment. (5) (b) Outline THREE reasons for reviewing a risk assessment. (3) Answer (a) The key stages involved in carrying out a risk assessment are dentifying the hazards associated with the activities and tasks performed at the workplace; identifying who might be harmed including operators, maintenance staff, cleaners, visitors etc; evaluating the likelihood and probable severity of the harm that might be caused; assessing the adequacy of existing control measures and deciding whether additional measures were required; recording the significant findings of the assessment and carrying out a review at a later date and revising the findings when necessary. (b) The reasons for reviewing the risk assessment include changes in the processes, work methods or materials used; the introduction of new or the modification of existing plant; the availability of new information on hazards and risks; the availability of new or improved control measures or techniques; a change in legislation; changes in personnel, for example the employment of young or disabled persons; when the results of monitoring of accidents, ill-health and the workplace environment are not as expected and finally after the passage of time. 11. Outline the benefits to an employer of conducting accident investigations. 9) Answer The benefits of conducting accident investigation such as the prevention of similar accidents occurring in the future; facilitating compliance with legal requirements and obligations; an improvement in the health and safety performance of the organization; an improvement in the morale of the workforce and its attitude towards health and safety; the prevention of business loss and the 5 provision of evidence to support a defense in the event of enforcement action or a civil claim being brought against the employer. 12. With respect to undertaking general risk assessments on activities within a workplace: (a) Outline the key stages of the risk assessment process, identifying the issues that would need to be considered at EACH stage; (10) (b) Explain the criteria which must be met for the assessment to be ‘suitable and sufficient’; (4) Outline the factors that the employer should take into account when selecting individuals to assist in carrying out the required risk assessment. (6) (c)

Answer (a) The first stage is to consider the activities that are being undertaken at the workplace and to identify the significant hazards involved. This would be followed by the identification of those exposed to the hazards such as operators, maintenance staff, cleaners and visitors and noting in particular groups who might be especially at risk such as young or disabled workers. The next stage would involve an evaluation of the risks arising from the identified hazards, taking into account the likelihood and severity of the harm that could be caused, the frequency and duration of the exposure of the employees, the measures in existence to control the risks and the need and scope for a further reduction in risk by the introduction of additional controls.

The fourth stage involves recording the significant findings of the assessment in a written and retrievable form (such as, for example, the additional preventative and protective measures needed to control the risks), while the final stage would be concerned with a review and revision of the assessment at regular intervals or more particularly if there are developments in the processes or activities or changes in legislation which indicate that the original assessment may no longer be valid. (b) A risk assessment, to be deemed suitable and sufficient, should identify all significant hazards and risks arising from or connected with the activity to be carried out, identify all the persons at risk including employees, other workers and members of the public, evaluate the adequacy and effectiveness of existing control measures and identify other protective measures that may be required, enable priorities to be set, be appropriate to the nature of the work and be valid over a reasonable period of time. c) relevant factors which should have been outlined included the individuals’ past experience and training in hazard identification and in carrying out risk assessments, their experience of the process or activity carried out in the workplace and their knowledge of the plant and equipment involved, their ability to understand and interpret regulations, standards and guidance, their 6 communication and reporting skills, an awareness of their own limitations and their attitude and commitment to the task. Most candidates tended to concentrate on knowledge of the working area and training in risk assessment and did not provide answers of sufficient depth to obtain all the marks available. 13. (a) Outline the general content of the THREE sections of a health and safety policy. (6) (b) Explain why the health and safety policy should be signed by the most senior person in an organization, such as a Managing Director or Chief Executive· Officer. 2) Answer (a)The three sections of a policy are the ‘statement of intent’, which both demonstrates management’s commitment to health and safety and sets goals and objectives for the organization, then to the ‘organization’ section, the purpose of which is to allocate health and safety responsibilities within the company, to ensure effective delegation and to set up lines of communication, and finally, to the ‘arrangements’ section which sets out in detail the systems and procedures to implement the policy covering issues such as controlling hazards, monitoring compliance and arrangements for consultation and communication with employees. (c) The signature of the most senior person in the organization would demonstrate management commitment but did not go on then to add that this would give authority to the policy or that the person concerned ultimately had responsibility for health and safety in the organization. 14. Outline reasons for promoting and maintaining good standards of health and safety in the workplace. 8) Answer The reasons for promoting and maintaining good standards of health and safety in the workplace are the moral, social and economic arguments The moral argument centred on the need to provide a reasonable standard of care and to reduce the injuries, pain and suffering caused to workers by accidents and ill-health while the social reasons were concerned with the need to provide a safe place of work, safe plant and equipment, safe systems of work, competent workers and a high standard of training and supervision. The economic benefits would include a more highly motivated workforce resulting in an improvement in the rate of production and product quality; the avoidance of costs associated with accident investigations; the avoidance of costs associated with accidents such as the hiring or training of replacement staff and the possible repair of plant and equipment; securing more favorable terms for 7 nsurance and maintaining the image and reputation of the organization with its various stakeholders. 15. (a) Explain the difference between consulting and informing workers in health and safety issues. (2) (b) Outline the health and safety issues on which employers should consult their workers. (6) Answer (a) The difference between the consulting and informing could refer to “informing” as a one way process, for example providing information to workers on hazards, risks and control measures and to “consulting” as a two way process in which the employer listens to, and takes account of, the views of workers before a decision is taken. (b) risk assessments and personal protective equipment and training issues.

Other issues which should have been outlined include: the introduction of any measure at the workplace that may substantially affect workers health and safety such as a change in the materials being used; changes in organizational structure; the arrangements for appointing and/or nominating competent persons to assist in complying with the health and safety requirements; the introduction of emergency procedures; welfare issues; incentive schemes and the introduction of policies on smoking, alcohol and substance misuse. 16. There has been deterioration in the health and safety culture of an organization. (a) Define the term ‘health and safety culture. (2) (b) Identify the factors that could have contributed to the deterioration. (6) Answer (a) Safety culture is the reference to attitudes and shared perceptions and defined as the product of individual and group values, and a pattern of behaviour based on competencies and confidence and on communications founded on mutual trust. b) factors that could have been identified included: the lack of leadership and commitment at senior level; the lack of effective communication with the workers; an inadequate level of supervision; the suspicion of a blame culture; time pressures with production over-riding health and safety; the lack of monitoring or where this did take place, a failure to implement suggested remedial action; the lack of consultation and workers involvement; a poor working environment; a high staff turnover and a reduction in staffing levels; and external influences such as a downturn in the economy leading to a lack of investment and resources and a fear for job security. 17.

Outline, with examples, the general hierarchy that should be applied in order to control health and safety risks in the workplace. (8) 8 Answer The general hierarchy for controlling health and safety risks in the workplace include the possibility of eliminating the risks either by designing them out, changing the process or contracting the work out. The next step would be the reduction of the risks by, for example, the substitution of hazardous substances with others which were less hazardous and reducing exposure time for example by job rotation. If this were not possible, then isolation would have to be considered, using enclosures, barriers or worker segregation.

The application of engineering controls such as guarding, the provision of local exhaust ventilation systems, the use of reduced voltage systems or residual current devices would follow with the final control measure being the provision of personal protective equipment such as ear defenders or respiratory protective equipment. 18. Contractors are carrying out a major building project for an organization. Outline how this organization could reduce the risks to contractors before the start of and during the building project. (8) Answer The issues reducing the risks to contractors include the initial selection of a competent contractor ensuring they had sufficient resources and had allowed sufficient time to enable the work to be completed safely.

There would then be a need to share information with the contractor on the particular risks in the working area for instance the presence of vehicles including fork lift trucks and the danger of falling materials; the presence of hazardous materials such as asbestos and the location of services such as electricity, water and gas; general site safety rules such as a smoking policy and reference to the host employer’s safety policy; requirements for permits to work for certain work activities; accident reporting procedures; emergency procedures; the main point of contact on the site; and the location of welfare facilities including first aid. Finally, whilst the building work was in progress, there would have to be ongoing cooperation and coordination with the contractor with regular monitoring of performance in ensuring the health and safety of both their and the organization’s workers. 19. Outline the initial actions that should be taken following a major injury accident at work. 8) Answer The initial that should be taken following a major injury accident include isolating services and making the area safe; administering first aid treatment and contacting the emergency services; informing the next of kin; notifying the regulatory authority if appropriate; collecting initial evidence such as photographs and sketches and the names of witnesses and setting up the accident investigation. 20. (a) Explain how accident data can be used to improve health and safety performance within an organization. (4) 9 (b) Explain TWO active (proactive) monitoring methods that can be used when assessing an organization’s health and safety performance. (4) Answer (a) The accident data could be used to identify trends, prevent recurrence, identify problem areas, give the opportunity for remedial actions, data could be used to compare with others, to inform and stimulate discussion at joint consultation meetings with the workforce and to identify the costs of accidents. b) Proactive methods that might have been explained included: audits involving comprehensive and independently executed examinations of all aspects of an organization’s health and safety performance against stated objectives; inspections carried out on a regular basis which identify existing conditions and compare them with agreed performance objectives; safety surveys focusing on a particular activity such as manual handling, training programmes and workers attitudes towards safety; Safety sampling where specific areas of occupational health and safety are targeted; tours involving unscheduled workplace inspections to check on issues such as wearing of personal protective equipment and housekeeping; (Candidates can write any two proactive measures among above) 21. (a) Identify FOUR types of emergency that would require an organization to have an emergency procedure. 4) (b) Explain why visitors to a workplace should be informed of its emergency procedures. (4) Answers (a) Emergency procedures that companies might need to have in place include evacuation in case of fire, for accidents, for dangerous occurrences such as a chemical spillage, for a security or intruder alert and in the event of an explosive device being discovered on site. (b) Visitors should be informed of the emergency procedures so that they could react appropriately in the event of an emergency, to prevent visitors obstructing workers and putting them at risk, the moral responsibility of the organization for the safety of visitors and the duty of care it might owe them under law. 22.

Outline how induction training programmes for new workers can help to reduce the number of accidents in the workplace. (8) Answer: An induction training programme for new workers may assist in reducing the number of accidents in the workplace firstly by making the workers aware of the hazards and risks in the workplace; by introducing them to the safe systems of work and the various procedures including those for emergencies that must be 10 followed; by making them aware of any restricted areas; by training them in the correct use of tools and equipment and ensuring they are fully conversant with the use, maintenance and arrangements for reporting deficiencies of any personal protective equipment that has to be used.

Additionally, the induction training programme will alert the new workers to the procedures for reporting hazards and incidents, of the sources of help, advice and mentoring that are available to them and of their own responsibility for ensuring accidents and incidents are kept to a minimum. Finally the training programme will assist in helping the workers to adopt a positive attitude to health and safety and to counter the negative attitude that can often be created by peer pressure. 23. (a) Define the term ‘hazard’. (2) (b) Define the term ‘risk’. (2) (c) Identify FOUR means of hazard identification that may be used in the workplace. (4) Answers (a) Hazard is defined as something with the potential to cause harm (b) Risk is defined as the probability/likelihood that the potential would be realized and its possible consequence and severity in terms of injury, damage or harm. c) Means that may be used to identify hazards in the workplace include carrying out inspections, observations and safety audits; completing task and/or job analyses and risk assessments; the study of data on accidents and near miss incidents including the investigation reports; reference to legislation and its accompanying guidance and manufacturers’ documents such as safety data sheets; carrying out health surveillance and consulting with members of the workforce. 24. (a) Identify FOUR types of health and safety information that could be displayed on a notice board in a workplace. (4) (b) Identify how the effectiveness of notice boards as a method of communicating health and safety information can be increased. 4) Answer (a) the types of information that could have been identified include: the health and safety policy of the organisation; the “Information for Employees” poster; information regarding health and safety representatives such as their names and contact details; targets set for the reduction of accidents and ill health and information showing the current level of performance against the targets; forthcoming health and safety events including information on training courses available; identification of first aid arrangements and procedures for evacuation in the event of a fire; health and safety posters specific to current campaigns being run; information on current issues affecting health and safety such as contract work, no go areas and diversions; and a copy of the Employer’s liability insurance certificate. 11 b) The ways of increasing the effectiveness of notice boards include ensuring they were located in a common and prominent area of the workplace such as the staff room or canteen; dedicating the boards to health and safety matters; ensuring the information displayed was relevant and current and kept up to date; giving consideration to all ethnic groups and employees with special needs; displaying the information in a neat and orderly fashion and making the notice board eyecatching by the use of colour and graphics and, where possible, allocating responsibility for the up-keep of the board to a named member of the workforce. 25. Explain why personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered as a last resort in the control of occupational health hazards. (8) Answer There are numerous reasons why personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered only after other possibilities or hierarchy of controls have been xhausted or failed. At a basic level, it is a legal requirement that other means of control are considered first. Other reasons include that PPE may not provide adequate protection because of such factors as poor selection, poor fit, incompatibility with other types of PPE, contamination, and misuse or non-use by employees. In addition, PPE is likely to be uncomfortable and relies for its effectiveness on a conscious action by the user. In certain circumstances, its use can actually create additional risks for instance, warning sounds masked by hearing protection. 26. Give reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly understood by an employee. 8) Answer: The reasons include the nature of the working environment (eg high levels of noise, interference from personal protective equipment and other distractions), the use of too much technical jargon, language or dialect issues, ambiguity of the message, sensory impairment or learning difficulties, the inexperience of the recipient (ie being unable to relate properly to what is being said), and the fact that the instruction may be too complex or lengthy to be given verbally. 27. (a) Define the term ‘negligence ‘. (2) (b) Outline the THREE standard conditions that must be met for an injured employee to prove a case of negligence against his/her employer following an accident at work. 6) Answer: (a) Negligence is defined as a civil wrong (tort) involving unreasonably careless conduct (a breach of the common law duty of care), resulting in loss, damage or injury. 12 (b) The three standard conditions for an employee to prove a case of alleged negligence against an employer include (1) a duty of care was owed by the employer (ie that the employee was acting in the course of his/her employment); (2) that the employer acted in breach of that duty by not doing everything that was reasonable to prevent foreseeable harm; (3) thirdly, that the breach led directly to the loss, damage or injury. 28. Outline ways in which the health and safety culture of an organization might be improved. 8) Answer: The ways to be improved include establishing and implementing a sound health and safety policy; securing the commitment of management and ensuring that managers lead ‘by example; involving and consulting with employees on matters affecting their health and safety; and providing effective supervision and training, the organization should give equal priority to health and safety as other business objectives (such as production and quality), establishing effective means of communication with the workforce, and providing a pleasant working environment with good welfare facilities. 29. (a) State the circumstances under which an employer must establish a health and safety committee. (2) (b) Give SIX reasons why a health and safety committee may prove to be ineffective in practice. 6) Answer: (a) An employer must establish a health and safety committee when one is requested, in writing, by two or more trade union-appointed safety representatives. (b) Lack of management commitment; no terms of reference for the committee; no agenda and/or minutes of the meetings being produced; an uneven balance between management and employee representatives; poor chairmanship; no access to the decision-making processes; infrequent meetings; inappropriate topics for discussion; and no access to health and ‘safety expertise. 30. Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and safety of persons who are required to work on their own away from the workplace. 8) Answer: The factors that would determine the actual level of risk at the work location include such issues as the type of work to be done and its attendant hazards and risks’, the, equipment to be used, the work environment and the control measures in place. The particular factors in relation to those working alone at a distant location could then have been identified. The’ competence and suitability of the 13 persons involved, the methods of communication with the home base, and emergency and first aid procedures would all be relevant in this respect. 31. Outline the specific factors that should be considered when assessing the risks to employees working on night shifts. 8) Answers The factors to be considered include lighting, heating, welfare and first-aid provision, and emergency arrangements; the effects of fatigue and the increased likelihood of human error; the number of hours worked and the period allowed for recovery between shifts; general well-being when normal routines are disrupted; the level of supervision provided and access to specialist advice if required; and the possible increased risk of violent assault on the way to and from work. 32. (a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘competent person? (2) (b) Outline the organizational factors that may cause a person to work unsafely even though they are competent. 6) Answer: (a) The competent person is defined as a person would need to possess knowledge based on appropriate qualifications and training, the skills, experience and personal qualities to apply the knowledge in a given situation. (b) The organizational factors include management or peer group pressure, a poor safety culture in the organization, a lack of resources’ or equipment, a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities, inadequate supervision and poor working conditions. 33. (a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘risk’. (2) (b) Identify SIX hazards that might be considered when assessing the risk to the health and safely of a multi-storey car park attendant.

Answer: (a) The risk is the product of the probability or likelihood of the occurrence and the severity of the occurrence of an unwanted event; (b) the hazards facing a person employed as an attendant in a multi-storey car park include, fumes and/or dust; impact or crushing by moving vehicles; fire (particularly in relation to fuel); extremes of ambient temperature; the possibility of being subjected to violence; noise from, for instance, car alarms; slips, trips or falls (exacerbated perhaps by oil and stairs); biological hazards from the presence of vermin, human waste and hypodermic needles; and ergonomic hazards caused by the need to stoop or twist in what might be a restricted workspace. 34. (a) Explain the purpose of the ‘statement of intent section of a health and safety policy (2). 14 (b) Outline the circumstances that would require a health and safety policy to be reviewed. 6) Answer: (a) The ‘statement of intent’ section of a health and safety policy is designed to demonstrate management commitment to health and safety in terms of aims and objectives, example, commitment to improve trainings. (b) The circumstances to review the policy include significant changes in the organization; after the introduction of new or changed processes or work methods; following changes in key personnel; following changes in legislation; where risk assessments, monitoring exercises or investigations show that the policy is no longer effective or relevant; and after a sufficient period of time has elapsed since the previous review to suggest that another one is due. 35.

Identify EIGHT sources of information that might usefully be consulted when developing a safe system of work. (8) Answer: The eight sources of information include statutory regulations/requirements, approved codes of practice and HSE guidance, manufacturers’ information, European and other official standards, industry or trade literature, results of risk assessments, accident statistics and health/medical surveillance records, the employees involved, and enforcement agencies and other experts. 36. (a) Explain, giving an example in EACH case, the circumstances under which a health and safety inspector may serve: (i) an improvement notice (3) (ii) a prohibition notice. 3) (b) State the effect on EACH type of enforcement notice of appealing against it. (2) Answer (a) (i) (ii) To serve an improvement notice, an inspector must be of the opinion that there is a breach of relevant statutory provisions, or that there has been a breach that is likely to be continued or repeated. A relevant example would be the absence of manual handling assessments. For a prohibition notice to be served, an inspector must be of the opinion that there is, or is likely to be, a risk of serious personal injury. (The risk of injury does not have to be ‘imminent’, as many candidates suggested, although in practice it often is. )· A relevant example would be a dangerous machine that lacks the necessary safeguards. b) the effect of an appeal against an improvement notice is to suspend the notice until the appeal is held, whereas a prohibition notice continues in force during this time. 15 37. An organization has introduced a new work process for which a risk assessment is required under regulation 3 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. (i) Outline the steps that should be used in carrying out the risk assessment. Identifying the issues that would need to be considered at EACH stage. (8) Explain the criteria that must be met for the assessment to be deemed ‘suitable and sufficient’. (4) Identify the various circumstances that might require a review of the risk assessment. (8) (ii) (iii) Answer: i) The steps used in carrying out the risk assessment include identifying the hazards involved and determining the possible consequences; identifying the number and types of person exposed; evaluating the associated risk by assessing the likelihood and severity of harm that could be caused; evaluating the adequacy, of existing controls and the need for additional measures to secure compliance with legislation and other standards; and recording the results of the assessment, and finally monitoring and review. (ii) The criteria to be met to ensure the suitability and sufficiency of an assessment include the comprehensive identification of significant hazards and risks, the identification and prioritization of measures needed to reduce the risk to an acceptable level, and ensuring that the assessment remains valid and for a reasonable period of time.

Typical circumstances to review the risk assessment include: a change to the process, work method or substances in use; the introduction of new or modified plant; the availability of new information on hazards and risks; accidents or incidents of ill-health; the results of monitoring and/or auditing; a change in the requirements of legislation; action taken or advice given by an enforcement authority or insurance company; and a change in personnel, in particular the involvement of young persons, new or expectant mothers or disabled persons. (iii) 38. (a) Outline the key features of: (i) a health and safety inspection; (4) (ii) a health and safety audit. (4) (b) Explain how the findings of an audit may be used to improve health and safety performance(12) Answer: 16 (a) (i) A workplace inspection involves the straightforward physical inspection of a workplace, and/or the activities or equipment within it. It is carried out by supervisors and/or safety representatives at regular intervals and checklists are often used.

The inspector looks for unsafe acts and conditions and results in a short report of its findings suggesting remedial action that should be taken. (ii) A safety audit, on the other hand, is a systematic critical examination of an organization’s health and safety management system, involving a structured process including the use of a series of questions and the examination of documentation, to collect independent information with the aim of assessing the effectiveness and reliability of the system and suggesting corrective action when this is thought to be necessary. It is carried out by trained auditors, who may be internal or external to the organization. b) The findings of a safety audit may be used in a number of ways to improve health and safety performance such as: identifying strengths and weaknesses in the management system; identifying compliance and non-compliance and the reasons for the latter thus informing and enabling remedial actions; enabling comparison and bench marking with other similar organisations; assisting with the allocation and prioritisation of resources; communicating its findings to management and staff and so giving an indication of the organisation’s commitment to health and safety and finally, by means of subsequent audits at regular intervals, assisting in the continual improvement of the management system. 39. Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system. (8) Answer: The key elements of the health and safety management system are beginning with policy which should be a clear statement of intent, setting the main health and safety aims and objectives of the company and the commitment of management, followed by organisation for health and safety which should ensure the allocation of responsibility to appropriate members of staff, with the emphasis on achieving competency, control, communication and consultation.

The next stage would be planning and implementing that should involve carrying out risk assessments, the setting of standards and targets and the introduction of appropriate control measures to achieve them. That done, proactive and reactive monitoring systems would need to be introduced to provide data on the achievement or non achievement of the objectives and targets set. Finally a review and audit should be carried out to check whether what was planned was actually taking place, to consider options for improvement and to set new targets where necessary. 17 40. Outline why it is important that all persons are aware of their roles and responsibilities for health and safety in an organization. 8) Answer: Making all persons in an organization aware of their roles for health and safety will assist in defining their individual responsibilities and will indicate the commitment and leadership of senior management. A clear delegation of duties will assist in sharing out the health and safety workload, will ensure contributions from different levels and jobs, will help to set up clear lines of reporting and communication and will assist in defining individual competencies and training needs particularly for specific roles such as first aid and fire. Finally, making individuals aware of their own roles and responsibilities can increase their motivation and help to improve morale throughout the organization. 41. Two organizations share the same workplace. Outline how they could co-operate to achieve good health and safety standards. 8) Answer: In order to achieve good health and safety standards in the workplace, the two organizations could: hold regular meetings, share information and risk assessments and avoid carrying out incompatible processes; prepare and agree joint site rules for the workplace for example for assembly points and smoking areas; set up joint procedures for the management of visitors and contractors; agree on procedures for the management of traffic and the movement of vehicles; carry out joint inspections and monitoring of the workplace; draw up joint emergency procedures; agree a policy for the management of waste and obtain advice on health and safety matters from a shared consultant. 42. Give the reasons why hazards to the health of workers may not be identified during a workplace inspection. (8) Answer: There are a number of reasons why hazards to the health of workers may not be identified during a workplace inspection such as: the nature of the hazard may not be well understood as for example with those arising from contact with biological agents; a lack of measuring equipment such as for noise; the fact that effects may be chronic rather than immediate; the hazard not being visible as with certain gases or that rising from radiation; over familiarity as, for example, from exposure to sunlight; the individual susceptibility of certain workers; a particular task which was not in progress and the workers not available during the inspection; the unwillingness of individuals to admit there are problems with their health; the fact that health is given a low priority in the organization; the person carrying out the inspection concentrating on the more immediate and often safety hazards; and ultimately the lack of competency of the inspector. 18 43. (a) Give the meaning of the term ‘permit-to-work’. (2) (b) Identify THREE types of work that may require a permit-to-work, AND give the reasons why in EACH case. (6) Answer: (a) A permit-to-work is a formal documented planned procedure designed to protect personnel working in hazardous areas or carrying out high risk activities. b) The types of work where a permit-to-work system might be required such as work in confined spaces where there is a danger of being overcome by fumes or gases or by a shortage of oxygen; work on live or high voltage electrical equipment where there would be a danger of electrocution; hot work involving welding or cutting operations, where the risk of sparks may ignite nearby flammable materials; maintenance work on dangerous process plant or production machinery where it may not be possible to keep the normal standards of protection in place and work at heights. 44. (a) Identify TWO main purposes of first-aid treatment. (2) (b) Outline the factors to be considered when carrying out a risk assessment of firstaid requirements in a workplace. 6) Answer: (a) The two main functions of first-aid treatment are, firstly, the preservation of life and/or the minimization of the consequences of injury until medical help is obtained and secondly, the treatment of minor injuries that would not receive or do not need medical attention. (b) The factors to be considered include the number of trained first-aid personnel and first-aid facilities in relation to, for example, the size of the organization; the distribution and composition of the workforce including the special needs of employees such as trainees, young workers and the disabled; the types of hazard and level of risk present; the past history of accidents and their ype, location and consequences; the proximity of the workplace to emergency medical services; the special needs of travelling, remote or lone workers; the need to train the first aid personnel in special procedures; and the ability to provide continued cover over different shifts and for sickness, leave and other absence. 45. Outline the main health and safety responsibilities or (a) employers;(4) (b) workers. (4) Answer (a) The main health and safety responsibilities of an employer are to provide and maintain safe plant and equipment, to carry out risk assessments and to introduce safe systems of work; to ensure the safe use, storage, handling and transport of articles and substances; to provide and maintain a safe workplace, 19 ncluding access and egress; to provide a safe working environment with adequate welfare facilities, and to provide information, instruction, training and supervision for employees, the responsibility to prepare and revise a health and safety policy; to cooperate with and consult with employees; to secure competent health and safety advice and to cooperate with other employers at the workplace. (b) As for workers, their responsibilities include taking reasonable care of themselves and their fellow workers and to refrain from misusing equipment provided for their health and safety; cooperating with their employer; reporting accidents and dangerous situations to their employer or other nominated member of management; to comply with site rules and to refrain from taking alcohol or drugs during and immediately before working hours. 46.

Identify EIGHT health and safety hazards relevant to the role of a long distance delivery driver (8) Answer: Health and safety hazards relevant to the role of a long distance delivery driver include: the duration of the journey and the hours of driving; issues connected with the route to be followed and the different road conditions; the weather and other environmental factors; inadequate vehicle maintenance and the possibility of breakdown; the manual and/or mechanical handling of the goods being carried and other hazards associated with them such as exposure to chemicals; physical hazards such as exposure to noise and vibration; lone working with a possible absence of communication and supervision; the lack of emergency procedures including the provision of first aid; security hazards including the possibility of violence and psychological hazards such as stress. 47. Identify reasons why workers may fail to comply with safety procedures at work. 8) Answer: There are many reasons why employees may fail to comply with safety procedures at work and better answers recognized most of them such as: inadequate resources whether of tools, equipment or employees; unrealistic or illconsidered procedures; a perceived lack of commitment to health and safety by management and emphasis on other priorities such as production; the lack of adequate information and training and a perceived lack of consultation; a poor safety culture within the organization; fatigue, illness and stress; lack of concentration because of boredom and repetitive work tasks; poor working conditions; mental and/or physical capabilities not taken into account; inadequate supervision and a failure to enforce compliance with the procedures; peer group pressure; a failure to recognize risks and ultimately a willful disregard of the safety procedures. 20 48. (a) Outline why an organization should have a system for the internal reporting of accidents. (4) (b) Identify the reasons why workers might not report accidents at work. (4) Answer: (a) There are a number of reasons why an organization should have a system for the internal reporting of accidents.

These include the compilation of accident statistics and the identification of trends; to satisfy legal requirements; so that an investigation may be carried out to prevent a recurrence or to identify weaknesses in the safety management system; for use in civil claims or to satisfy insurance requirements; to help in the identification and reduction of loss; and to inform the review of risk assessments (b) The reasons for not reporting accidents at workplace include employee being unaware of reporting procedures or the fact that no procedure was in place; peer pressure and a reluctance to take time off from the job in hand; possible retribution or blame by management; to preserve the company’s or department’s safety record particularly when an incentive scheme is in operation; to avoid receiving first-aid or medical treatment for whatever reason; over-complicated reporting procedures, and lack of obvious management response to earlier reported accidents. 49. Give reasons why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate health and safety information in the workplace. (8) Answer: The reasons to communicate variety of information in the workplace include, people respond differently to different stimuli, and that variety prevents overfamiliarization with one method and helps to reinforce a message.

Other reasons that could have been given were: the need to overcome language barriers and the inability of some workers to read; the need to motivate, stimulate interest and gain involvement and feedback; the acceptance that different types of information require different methods of communication for example emergency signs; that the policy of the organization may require certain information to be in a specified format; and that on occasions evidence that the message was given may need to be kept. 21 50. Outline the immediate AND longer term actions that should be taken following an accident at work that has caused serious injury to a worker. 8) Answer: The immediate actions such as: isolating services and making the area safe; administering first aid treatment and contacting the emergency services; informing the next of kin and offering counseling and support; notifying the regulatory authority if appropriate; collecting initial evidence such as photographs and sketches and the names of witnesses; setting up the accident investigation team and investigating the accident; determining the root and underlying causes of the accident; making and implementing recommendations to prevent a recurrence of the accident and ensuring feedback is provided to the workforce; collecting evidence to be used in any possible litigation following the accident and managing the provision of information to the media. 51.

Outline the immediate ; long term actions that should be taken following a serious accident at work? Answer: The immediate action include treat person if safe to do so, ring for an ambulance ; send to hospital, inform dependants, make area safe ; cordon off ensuring scene is not disturbed, notify enforcement authority, speak to any eye witnesses and take photographs, statements and measurements. The long term actions include, investigate the accident, identify the immediate and root causes, recommendations, report the causes to the management, draw the action plan for implementation, verify the effectiveness of the implementation, communicate the causes to all employees etc. 22