Political Science Study Guide Essay

Midterm Exam Review Sheet POSC 10, American Government and Politics Please note: Students are responsible for reading and knowing what is contained in all of the assigned chapters, as well as anything covered in class discussions, lectures, and handouts. This review sheet is not meant to be all inclusive, but rather is a general guide as to the types of things that may be included on the exam. Introduction: The Democratic Republic Some Things to Know: • Harold Lasswell: “Who Gets What, When, and How” • Politics • Government • Authority • Legitimacy • Power • Oligarchy • Elites • Aristocracy  Democracy – Direct or Participatory Democracy – Indirect Democracy or Representative Democracy • Legislature • Initiative • Referendum • Recall • Republic • Consent of the People • Representative Democracy • Limited Government • Elite Theory • Pluralism • Political Socialization • Liberty, Equality, and Property “The Critical Period” – John Quincy Adams Popular Sovereignty • What is required, when is it exercised, how is it exercised. • Gives legitimacy to our government • Bruce Ackerman: “We the People…” -Founding, Civil War, 1930s/Great Depression • Requirements for People to Exert it.

Characteristics of the American Political System • Liberty, Equality, and Property, (Democracy). How Voters Decide? Who Governs? -The Pluralists, Elites, Bureaucrats, etc. The Changing Face of America – Explain the concept. – List and explain the factors involved. Ideology • Defined, charted, who believes what. • Socialist, Liberal, Moderate, Conservative, Libertarian Chapter Two: Colonial America and the Constitution. Initial Colonizing • Roanoke Island – 1588, Sir Walter Raleigh, “the Lost Colony” • Jamestown – 1607, Virginia Company of London • Mayflower – 1620, Mayflower Compact (Significance of) Depended on the consent of the affected individuals -It served as a prototype for similar compacts in American History • Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1630. • Other Colonies in Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire and elsewhere. • 13 Colonies by 1732 Sugar Act Stamp Act First Continental Congress Second Continental Congress The Declaration of Independence (by Jefferson) Natural Rights Social Compact Confederation (defined) Unicameral Legislature (defined) Bicameral Legislature (defined) Articles of Confederation (Structure, Powers & Weaknesses, see pg. 37-38 of text) Shay’s Rebellion, Debtor crisis, etc.

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Drafting the Constitution (by Madison) • The Constitutional Convention: Conflicts and Resolutions of Issues Involved, the Plans, Compromises necessary to resolve conflicts. • Internal Debates: Strong vs. Weak Central Government; • Virginia (Randolph) or Large State Plan; (Comparing the Plans) • New Jersey (Patterson) or Small State Plan (Comparing the Plans) • Connecticut Compromise (by Roger Sherman), 3/5 Compromise (Resolution of Differences) • System of Separation of Powers (Spirit of the Laws, 1748, Baron Montesquieu) Drafting the Constitution cont.  System of Checks and Balances (How it works, see pg. 45 of text) • Article I: The Legislature (Congress: House of Representatives and Senate) • Article II: The Executive (President) • Article III: The Judiciary (The Supreme Courts and “inferior” courts) • The Final Document: • At its core was the idea of Popular Sovereignty – Here the People Rule • Understand the concept, when it is exercised, and why it is significant. • Know the discussion of the Bruce Ackerman book, “We the People” • Requirements for People to get involved. When have the people exerted their roles as sovereigns. • A “Republican Form of Government” or representative democracy– The people elect representatives to represent them • It was to be limited government with limited powers. • There was to be a separation of powers with a system of checks and balances. • States rights were to be protected. • The Difficult Road to Ratification • Individual State Conventions • The debate between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists (what each stood for) • The Federalists were the chief proponents for the Constitution’s adoption. The Anti-Federalists were the chief opponents for the Constitution’s adoption. • The Federalist Papers: • Authors: Madison, Hamilton, Jay. • Federalist #10 (Factions) • Federalist #39 (Republican nature of the proposed government) • Federalists #45 and #46 (The issue of consolidation) • Federalist #51 (Separation of Powers System) • Federalist #70 (Need for a vigorous executive) • The Bill of Rights • Supremacy of Constitution Amendments: The Amending Process All 27 Amendments People: John Locke—English Political Philosopher – Life, Liberty and Property John Q.

Adams—“Critical Period” Thomas Jefferson—Author of the Declaration of Independence James Madison – Author of the Constitution Hamilton, Jay, and Madison – Authors of the Federalists John Jay, First Chief Justice Alexander Hamilton, First Treasury Secretary Marbury v. Madison (Judicial Review) Chapter Three: Federalism (Federal/State Relations): Three Systems of Government • Unitary Systems • Confederal Systems • Federal Systems Why Federalism? Benefits of, arguments against, etc. Enumerated Powers (Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution). Inherent Powers Concurrent Powers Supremacy Clause

The Necessary and Proper Clause or “Elastic Clause. ” Vertical Checks and Balances Different Stages of Federalism Federalism Interstate Compacts Horizontal Federalism Dual Federalism Cooperative Federalism Picket Fence Federalism Federal Mandates (Funded and Unfunded) Block Grants Categorical Grants in Aid Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) Chapter Four: Civil Liberties: Civil Liberties • Freedom of Speech • Freedom of Religion • Due Process • Freedom of Assembly Incorporation Theory The Establishment Clause The Wall of Separation Principle The Free Exercise Clause The Bad Tendency Rule Equal Protection Under 14th Amendment

Religious Freedom Restoration Act Clear and Present Danger Test Obscenity (As addressed by Courts) Symbolic Speech Commercial Speech Affirmative Action Americans with Disabilities Act Privacy The Press and Civil Liberties: • Slander • Libel • Gag Order Civil Liberties Chapter: cont. • Defamation of Character • Prior Restraint • Censorship Balancing the Rights of Society and the Accused • Crime and Due Process • Writ of Habeas Corpus • The Exclusionary Rule • Search and Seizure • Search Warrants • Miranda Rights • The Good Faith Exception • The Death Penalty • Limits on the conduct of police officers and prosecutors Defendant’s pretrial rights • Defendant’s trial rights Affirmative Action Americans with Disabilities Act Privacy Chapter Five: Civil Rights: Equality Civil Rights 13-15th Amendments America and The Consequences of Slavery The Civil Rights Movement Plessy v. Ferguson (Issues, Court ruling, Concept of Separate, But Equal) Separate, But Equal Doctrine Jim Crow Laws Disenfranchisement of Blacks: • Literacy Tests • White Only Primaries • Grandfather Clauses • Poll Taxes Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) (Issues, Court Ruling, Class Action Lawsuit, Problems with Implementation)

Modern Civil Rights Legislation The NAACP Baker v. Carr Reynolds v. Sims Chapter Six: Public Opinion and Political Socialization: Measuring Opinion: George Gallup, Elmo Roper, Archibald Crossley Polling: What is Public Opinion Polling? Who were its founders? Opinion Leaders Public Opinion Opinion Polls Tracking Polls Push Polls Focus Groups Random Sample Representative Sample Sample Error How Valid is a Survey Use of Technology in polling Generalizations based upon poll results What a reader needs to think about when reading a poll Problems with Internet Polls Divisive Opinion Consensus Political Socialization: Family, The Education Environment, Peers, Religion, Economic Status • Occupation, Political Events, Opinion Leaders, the Media • Race, Gender, and Other Demographic Factors • The Process through which political beliefs are passed from one generation to another. • How were you politically socialized? Examples. Chapter Seven: Interest Groups: • What is an Interest Group? • What is a Lobbyist? • What does a Lobbyist Do? • How is lobbying and a lobbyist regulated? • What is a Social Movement? • Why are there so many Interest Groups? • What is a “Free Rider? ” • What is a “Latent Interest? ” • Reasons People Join Interest Groups: Solidarity Incentives – Material Incentives – Purposive Incentives • Name the different types of Interest Groups, give examples. – “Public Interest” Organizations – Economic Interest Groups – Business Interest Groups – Agricultural Interest Groups – Labor Interest Groups – Public Employee Interest Groups – Interest Groups of Professionals – Environmental Groups – Multiple Interest versus Single Interest Groups • What is an Umbrella Organization/Pressure Groups/Lobby • What are the four factors that make an interest group powerful? – The Size of the Group’s Membership – The Organization’s Leadership The Organization’s Financial Resources – The Organization’s Cohesiveness • Explain the differences between Inside and Outside Interest Group Strategies? • Explain what typically guides whether an Interest Group chooses an Inside or Outside Strategy? • What is the “Labor Movement? ” • What is a “Political Action Committee? ” • What is “Issue Advocacy Advertising? ” • What are “Hard Money” and “Soft Money? ” • Generally, why are Interest Groups important in shaping policy, representing interests, and how do they reflect James Madison’s view of factions as seen in Federalist #10.