WEEK 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function. Anatomy: The branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other organisms, esp. as revealed by dissection. Physiology: The branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts. Anatomy and physiology are connected in the way of not being able to understand one without the other.
For example, to understand your lungs functions of breathing through physiology, you have to understand the parts and structure of them (anatomy) such as the bronchial tree and alveoli. 2. List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level. 1. Chemical – Here, atoms combine to form molecular structures of organelles (carbon) 2. Organelle – Small structures of different purposes that come together to form cells (mitochondria) 3. Cells – the smallest units of all living things (prokaryotic) 4.
Tissues – groups of similar cells with common functions (brain tissue) 5. Organ – A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types (liver) 6. Organ System – a group of organs that work together to accomplish a same goal (respiratory system) 7. Organism – the highest level of living things (human) 3. List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system. 1. Circulatory system, (heart, lungs, blood vessels), to transport nutrients and gasses to cells and tissues 2.
Cardiovascular system, (heart, blood vessels, blood), to transport blood throughout the body 3. Lymphatic System, (lymph nodes and vessels, thymus, spleen), to support immunity 4. Digestive system, (mouth, stomach, intestines, rectum), breaks down food into energy 5. Endocrine system, (pituitary gland, pineal gland, hypothalamus, ovaries, testes, thyroid) maintains growth and homeostasis 6. Integumentary System, (skin, nails, hair, sweat glands), protects internal structure from damage, prevents dehydration, stores fat and produces vitamins/hormones 7. Muscular system, (muscles), enables movement of the body 8.
Nervous system, (brain, spinal cord, nerves), monitors and coordinates internal organ function and responds the changes in the external environment 9. Reproductive system, (vagina, uterus, ovaries, testes, scrotum, penis), enables the production of offspring through sexual reproduction 10. Respiratory system, (lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi), provides the body with oxygen 11. Skeletal System, (bones, ligaments), supports and protects the body, gives it shape and form 12. Urinary/Excretory System, (kidneys, bladder, urethra), removes waste and maintains water balance in the body 4.
Name the six life processes that distinguish living from non-living things. Metabolism, Responsiveness, Movement, Growth, Differentiation, and Reproduction 5. Specify the five environmental needs required for life. Suitable temperature, suitable atmosphere, liquid water, food, and oxygen. 6. Define the term homeostasis, what is involved in maintaining homeostasis, and explain how a homeostatic mechanism is regulated (i. e. negative feedback) by using an examples that you find. Homeostasis – The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, esp. as maintained by physiological processes.
An example of how homeostasis works is when the body becomes too hot, a part of the brain registers this and then activates sweat glands to help lower its temperature. Another example would be when blood pressure falls, norepinephrine is released, causing blood vessels to constrict and increases heart rate. 7. Demonstrate what is meant by “anatomical position”. The anatomical position is that of the human body standing erect with palms turned forward; this is used as the position of reference when designating the site or direction of the structures of the body. 8. Define various directional terms (i. e. superior, inferior, etc. , and compare different body parts using these terms (i. e. the elbow is proximal to the wrist). Anterior: (In front of, front) The toes are anterior to the heel when you look straight at a body. Posterior: (After, behind, following, toward the rear) The lungs are posterior to the ribcage. Distal: (Away from, farther from the origin) The skull is distal from the pelvic bone. Proximal: (Near, closer to the origin) The nose is proximal to the mouth. Dorsal: (Near the upper surface, toward the back) Your spine is dorsal. Ventral: (Toward the bottom, toward the belly) The intestines have a ventral location.
Superior: (Above, over) The elbow is superior to the pelvic bone. Inferior: (Below, under) The femur is inferior to the ribcage. Lateral: (Toward the side, away from the mid-line) The ribs are lateral. Medial: (Toward the mid-line, middle, away from the side) Your sternum is medial. Rostral: (Toward the front) Toes are rostral. Caudal: (Toward the back, toward the tail) Your tailbone is caudal. 9. List both anterior and posterior anatomical landmarks (i. e. orbital, inguinal, etc. ). Anterior: Cervical, coxal, digital, femoral, fibular, inguinal, etc Posterior: popliteal, cephalic, deltoid, gluteal, etc 0. Name the three major body sections (planes, cuts), and describe how each would be accomplished. 1. Sagittal – cutting down the body splitting right and left sides. 2. Coronal – splitting anterior and posterior landmarks 3. Axial – splits the body into superior and inferior parts. 11. Designate the five major human body cavities and name the organs within each on a human diagram. 1. Spinal cavity – houses the spinal cord 2. Pelvic cavity – bladder, urethra, ureters, uterus and vagina in female 3. Abdominal cavity – stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas 4.
Thoracic – Lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, and aorta 5. Cranial Cavity – brain, pituitary gland. 12. Describe the anatomical importance of the diaphragm muscle and make sure you can spell it correctly!!!! The diaphragm is important because it regulates the volume of air that the lungs may house, ensures they do not rupture or caves in due to air and oxygen issues. 13. Describe the nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity and the four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity and list the major organs found within each. 1.
Right hypochondriac – upper section of the right side (liver, gall bladder, small intestine, colon, kidney) 2. Epigastric – upper central region (esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, intestine, colon, kidneys) 3. Left hypochondriac – upper section of the left side (stomach, small intestine, kidney, pancreas) 4. Right lumbar – midsection of the right side (right kidney, gall bladder, small intestine, colon) 5. Umbilical- centermost region (stomach, pancreas, small intestine, colon, kidneys) 6. Left lumbar – midsection of the left side (small intestine, colon, left kidney) 7.
Right Iliac – lower section of the right side (small intestine, appendix, colon, right ovary/fallopian tube) 8. Hypogastric – lower central region (small intestine, colon, rectum, ovaries, ureters, uterus, bladder, prostate, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, fallopian tubes 9. Left Iliac – lower section of the left side (left fallopian tube, left ovary, small intestine, colon) Four quadrants are: 1. Right Upper -liver, gall bladder, part of stomach, small & large intestine 2. Left Upper – part of stomach, spleen, small and large intestine 3. Right Lower – appendix, cecum, large and small intestine 4.
Left Lower – large and small intestine 14. Distinguish between visceral and parietal serous membranes, and differentiate between pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal varieties. Visceral membranes line organs, while parietal serous membranes line cavities. Pleural has to do with the lining of the lungs, peritoneal the lining of the abdomen, and pericardial the lining of the heart. 15. Name the function of serous fluid. Serous fluid lines the internal cavities of humans and animals. It provides both protection and lubrication in certain areas of the body.